Appendix A: SPANISH AND FRENCH ROYAL REMAINS IN NORTH AMERICA
Appendix B: BRITISH ROYAL REMAINS
Appendix C: LOYALIST SITES
Appendix D: TREATY OF THE HOLY ALLIANCE
Appendix E: THE FRENCH OF OLD VINCENNES
Appendix F: THE SETTLING OF NEW BRAUNFELS AND CASTROVILLE
Appendix G: THE SHRINE OF CHIMAYO
Appendix H: FOREIGN VOLUNTEERS WITH THE CONFEDERACY
Appendix I: EARLIER INDIAN MISSIONS
Appendix J: THE METIS
Appendix K: CATHOLIC MISSIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
Appendix L: BLACK ELK’S LAST TESTAMENT
Appendix M: CATHOLIC IMMIGRANT COLONIES AND CUSTOMS
Appendix N: THE LUCERNE MEMORIAL
Appendix O: POPE BENEDICT XV’S PEACE PLAN
Appendix P: WILSON’S 14 POINTS
Appendix Q: CHARLES I OF AUSTRIA-HUNGARY—EMPEROR AND SAINT?
Appendix R: THE PREAMBLE AND PRINCIPLES OF THE NATIONAL UNION OF JUSTICE
SPANISH AND FRENCH ROYAL REMAINS
IN NORTH AMERICA
Herein are listed sites enshrining the patronage of Catholic Kings for their colonies.
A. Royal Administration.St. Augustine, Castillo San Marcos. Matanzas Inlet, Ft. Matanzas National Monument. Tallahassee, San Luis Archaeological and Historic site—remains of Spanish fort and mission. St. Marks, the ruins of Ft. San Marcos. British Rule. St. Augustine, Government House; St. Francis Barracks; Plaza de la Constitucion. Pensacola, Plaza Fernando VII; the ruins of Ft. San Carlos. Fernadina, the ruins of Ft. San Carlos. Near Doctor’s Inlet, Hibernia Plantation, granted to the Fleming family in 1790 by King Charles IV. Arredondo, a grant by King Ferdinand VII in 1817 to Don Fernando de la Maza de Arredondo and 200 Spanish families.
B. Royal Patronage of Religion and Education. St. Augustine, St. Augustine’s Catholic cathedral; Nombre de Dios Mission. Pensacola, St. Michael’s Catholic church. Korona, the ruins of Tissimi Mission.
C. Monarchists. Pensacola, the Creoles of Spanish and Black descent. St. Augustine, two miles north of Castillo San Marcos, site of Ft. Moosa, settlement of freed blacks from the Carolinas established by Royal favour in 1738—in return, the new settlers promise, “to defend, to the last drop of their blood, the Crown of Spain and the holy Catholic Faith.”
Royal Patronage of Education and Religion. St. Regis Indian Reservation, St. Regis Catholic Church, with the Caughnawaga Bell presented to the Indians by King Louis XV.
A. Royal Administration. Ft. Wayne, the site of Ft. Miami. Near Lafayette, Site of Ft. Ouiatenon.
B. Royal Patronage of Religion and Education. Vincennes, the Catholic Cathedral of St. Francis Xavier.
C. Monarchists. Vincennes, the Creoles, descendants of French settlers planted there by Royal order in 1727.
A. Royal Administration. French Rule. Metropolis, Ft. Massac State Historic Park. Near Prairie du Rocher, Ft. Chartres State Park and Ft. Kaskaskia State Park. Near Peoria, Ft. Creve Coeur State Park.
B. Royal Patronage of Religion and Education. Cahokia, the Old Catholic Church of the Holy Family. Kaskaskia, Immaculate Conception Catholic Church, with bell given by Louis XV in 1741.
C. Monarchists. Renault, Francophone Blacks, descendants of 500 slaves brought from Saint Domingue in 1719, under a grant from John Law’s Royal-Chartered Mississippi Company. Prairie du Rocher, descendants of John Law’s French settlers.
A. Royal Administration. Green Bay, site of Ft. La Baye, founded in 17th century by Commandant Nicholas Perrot for Louis XIV. Prairie du Chien, site of Ft. St Nicholas, established by Commandant Nicolas Perrot in 1685.
B. Royal Patronage of Religion and Education. De Pere, Site of Saint François Xavier Mission, given by Perrot, French Commandant at Green Bay, a silver ostensorium (now in Green Bay Museum).
A. Royal Administration. Detroit, founded by the French in 1701.
B. Royal Patronage of Religion and Education. Detroit, Ste. Anne’s Catholic Church, founded under royal patronage in 1705. Mackinac Island City, Old St. Ann’s Catholic Church, carried over the ice from Mackinaw City when fort transferred from mainland.
A. Royal Administration. Biloxi, founded in 1721 as French centre for Mississippi Gulf coast. Natchez, site of Ft. Rosalie, successively centre for French, British, and Spanish rule; The Elms, built by Spanish Governor Don Pedro Piernas in 1785; Hope Farm, home of Don Carlos de Grandpre, Spanish Governor 1790-1794; Airlie House, home of Don Estevan Minor, Spanish Governor 1798; Cottage Garden, house built in 1793 by Don Jose Vidal, Acting Governor of Natchez at the time of American occupation in 1798; Oakland, build by nephew of Don Estevan, has many relics of old Spanish Governor’s residence, Concord. Pascagoula, old Spanish Fort built in 1718. Ocean Springs, site of Ft. Maurepas, first capital (1699) of French Louisiana.
B. Royal Patronage of Religion and Education. Natchez, Parish House of the Catholic Church of San Salvador, built by order of King Charles III of Spain in 1786 to house four Irish priests for English-speaking Catholics.
C. Monarchists. Delisle, settled by Acadians.
A. Royal Administration. Mobile, Ft. Conde, seat of French, Spanish, and British Governors, and the Casket Women. On Dauphin Island, site of French Governor Cadillac’s court.
A. Royal Administration. Memphis, site of the Old Forts, the French Ft. Assumption, and the Spanish Ft. San Fernando de las Barrancas, commanded by the Dutchman, Benjamin Foy.
A. Royal Administration. French Rule. Nachitoches, Ft. St. Jean Baptiste State Historic Site. Spanish Rule. New Orleans, the Cabildo, site of Spanish administration; Charity Hospital, founded in 1736 but renedowed by Royal Governor in 1782. Pineville, the Rapides Cemetery with the grave of Enemund Meullion (1737-1820), commander of the Spanish Fort of Rapides. Baton Rouge, the Pentagon, on the site of successive French, Spanish, and British forts. Monroe, the site of Ft. Miro. New Iberia, Shadows on the Teche Plantation, on land granted to the Weeks family by Royal Governor Carondolet in 1792. Laurel Hill, Laurel Hill Plantation, granted to the Argue family by Charles IV. Near St. Francisville, Rosale Plantation, granted to Alexander Stirling by Charles IV; Greenwood Plantation, granted to Dr. Samuel Fowler in 1788 by King Charles III. Bains, Clover Hill Plantation, granted by King Charles IV in 1798 to Don Bernardo McDermott; Greenwood Plantation, granted by King Charles III to Dr. Samuel Flower in 1778. Near Big Bayou Sara, Rosebank Plantation, granted by King Charles IV in 1790 to Don Juan O’Connor, Alcalde (Magistrate) of West Florida under Spanish rule. Across the Mississippi River from Ft. Jackson, Ft. St. Philip, built by Governor Carondolet on orders from King Charles IV in 1795. Near Thibodaux, Rienzi Plantation, built in 1796 at request of Queen Maria Luisa of Spain, as a possible refuge in the event of Spanish defeat by the French Revolutionaries. Near Robeline, Los Adais State Historic Park, site of the Presidio de Nuestra Señora del Pilar de los Adais, founded in 1721 and serving as capital of the Spanish Province of Texas until 1773.
B. Royal Patronage of Religion and Education. New Orleans, St. Louis Catholic Cathedral; Immaculate Conception Catholic Church, with statue of the Virgin originally in private chapel of Queen Marie Amelie, consort of King Louis Phillipe; Ursuline College, founded in 1727 under the auspices of King Louis XV. Opelousas, St. Landry Catholic Church. St. Martinville, St. Martin de Tours Catholic Church, with a baptismal font given by King Louis XVI. St. Gabriel, St. Gabriel Catholic Church, built on land grant made by King Charles III in 1773 to “the Parish Church of Manchac.” Labarre, St. Francis Catholic Church, with altar, pews, confessional, candlesticks, and bell (bearing date 1719), all given by King Louis XV. St. Bernard, St. Bernard’s Catholic Church, built on land granted the Parish by Spanish Viceroy Bernardo Galvez in 1778.
C. Monarchists. Nachitoches, the Chamard House – built in 1735 by Bourbon descendant Andre Chamard, who was later knighted by Louis XVI. The Acadians, who began to arrive after their expulsion from Nova Scotia in 1755. In St. Bernard Parish, the Isleños, descendants of Canary Islanders sent to Louisiana by King Charles III of Spain in 1778 and 1779. New Iberia, descendants of Canary Islanders sent to the spot by King Charles III of Spain in 1788.
A. Royal Administration. At Arkansas Post, site of seat of French and Spanish Governors.
A. Royal Administration. Ste. Genevieve, Françoise Vallé House, home of François Vallé, Spanish Commandant of Ste. Genevieve District from 1783 to 1804. Florissant, Casa Alvarez, home of Augustine Alvarez, Deputy Commandant of the Spanish District of San Fernando de Florissant in the 1790s. Portage des Sioux, the Common Field, granted to the village by the King of Spain. Matson, the Daniel Boone Farm, granted to the great frontiersman by King Charles IV in 1799.
B. Royal Patronage of Education and Religion. Fredericktown, St. Michael Catholic Church, in the rectory of which is a painting given by a King of Spain, The Holy Family.
C. Monarchists. Cape Girardeau, home and grave of Don Luis Lorimier, half-breed Shawnee chief, supporter of the British during the Revolution, afterwards commandant for the Spanish of the District of Cape Girardeau.
A. Royal Administration. Spanish Rule. Dubuque, grave of Julien Dubuque, to whom the city (then called “Les Mines d’Espagne”) was granted by King Charles III in 1788. Montrose, site of 1799 grant by King Charles IV to French Canadian Louis Honore Tesson, with instructions to “plant trees, sow seeds, teach the science of agriculture to the Indians, and spread the tenets of the Catholic Faith.”
A. Royal Administration. Spanish rule. San Antonio, the Spanish Governors’ Palace, with the Habsburg double-eagle on the keystone over the entrance and the date 1749. Menard, Presidio San Luis de las Amarillas, founded in 1757. Presidio, site of Presido del Norte. Nacogdoches, reproduction of the Old Stone Fort, erected originally in 1779. Goliad, the Presidio Nuestra Señora de Loreto de la Bahia, founded in 1749.
B. Royal Patronage of Religion and Education. San Antonio, San Fernando Catholic Cathedral, built at royal expense in 1738, with several objets d’art given by Phillip V of Spain; Mission Concepcion founded in 1731; Mission San Jose, with three paintings in chapel given by Phillip V; Mission San Francisco de la Espada founded in 1731; Mission San Juan Capistrano, founded also in 1731. El Paso, the missions of Corpus Christi de la Ysleta del Sur, San Elizario, and La Purisima Concepcion del Socorro. Laredo, San Augustin Catholic Church, founded at royal expense in 1767. Weches, Mission San Francisco de los Tejas, originally built in 1690 – now a reproduction. Refugio, site of Mission Nuestra Señora del Refugio. Menard, Mision Santa Cruz or San Saba. Goliad, Mission Nuestra Señora del Espiritu Santo de Zuñiga, built in 1749.
C. Monarchists. San Antonio, site of the Battle of the Medina, where, on 18 August 1813, the Spanish General Joaquin Arredondo with an army of Royalists annihilated a band of Mexican Revolutionaries and Americans who had occupied San Antonio. Nacogdoches, site of repulse of American filibusterers in 1819 by townspeople loyal to the King of Spain.
A. Royal Administration. Santa Fe, called the Royal City of the Holy Faith of St. Francis; The Palace of the Governors, built in 1609, and seat of Royal administration from that year until (with the exception of the 1680-1692 Pueblo Revolt) until Mexican independence in 1821 – and of the Imperial Mexican rule for the year after that. Albuquerque, Old Town Plaza, granted to the City by King Phillip V of Spain in 1706. Peña Blanca, a Spanish village set between two Indian Pueblos, whose legal problem with these neighbours on two occasions had to be sent to Spain for judgement by the King. The eighteen Indian Pueblos in the state all enjoy Royal land grants, and their civil heads are Governor’s whose canes are symbolic of Royal authority. Los Lunas, granted to the Candelaria family in 1716, passing into the hands of the Luna family, whose grant was confirmed by the U.S. in 1899 (one of the few New Mexican families to receive such confirmation). Socorro, granted to 21 families (whose descendants still live there) by King Ferdinand VII in 1817. Santa Cruz, the second Royal city in New Mexico, founded in 1692 as “The Royal City of the Holy Cross of the Spanish Mexicans of the King Our Master Charles II.” La Ventana, Ojo Del Espiritu Santo, land grant given by the Spanish King to the De Baca family, and retained by them until 1934.
B. Royal Patronage of Religion and Education. Santa Fe, San Miguel Catholic Church, built and restored by the Royal Governors in 1636, 1693, and 1710. Albuquerque, San Felipe de Neri Catholic Church, financed by King Philip V in 1706. San Miguel del Bado, San Miguel del Bado Catholic Church, built in 1806 with Royal Patronage. Pecos National Park, with ruins of Mission Church of Nuestra de Los Angeles, built at behest of King Philip III. The eighteen Indian Pueblos all boast churches built at Royal expense, as do the older Hispano villages. Acoma Pueblo, San Esteban Rey Catholic Church, has a picture of St. Joseph given to the church by King Philip IV in 1629. Santa Cruz, Holy Cross, Catholic Church, with a 1797 letter from Charles IV of Spain concerning the Indians.
C. Monarchists. Belen, founded for Genizaros , Indian captives rescued by the Spanish from Apaches and Comanches, by the Royal authorities. Abiquiu, another Genizaro settlement, in this case, Tlaxcalans, whose prince was an ally of the King of Spain.
A. Royal Administration. A part of Spanish province of New Mexico. Tucson, Presidio Park. Tubac, Presidio ruins.
B. Royal Patronage of Religion and Education. Near Tucson, Missions San Xavier del Bac and Tumacacori.
A. Royal Administration. Monterey, the Old Customhouse; the Presidio. San Diego, Presidio Park. San Francisco, the Presidio’s Officer’s Club (originally the Spanish Commandante’s headquarters). Santa Barbara, the reconstructed Presidio. Sonoma, the Presidio. Los Angeles, the Plaza, where Royal Decree ordered settlement. El Camino Real (the King’s Highway) linking Presidios and Missions.
B. Royal Patronage of Religion and Education. All of the Missions were Royally decreed, and endowed with gifts. Monterey, the Royal Presidio Chapel. San Francisco, Mission Dolores, with picturing showing St. Joseph being reverenced by Pope Pius VI and King Charles IV, given by the latter. Santa Barbara, Mission Santa Barbara. Santa Cruz, Mission Santa Cruz. Carmel, Mission San Carlos Borromeo. Lompoc, Mission La Purisima Concepcion. Sonoma, Mission San Francisco Solano. San Rafael, Mission San Rafael. Santa Clara, Mission Santa Clara. San Juan Bautista, Mission San Juan Bautista. San Miguel, Mission San Miguel. San Luis Obispo, Mission San Luis Obispo. Solvang, Mission Santa Ynez. Ventura, Mission San Buenaventura, with painting of St. Bonaventure given by Charles III. San Juan Capistrano, Mission San Juan Capistrano. Oceanside, Mission San Luis Rey. San Fernando, Mission San Fernando. San Diego, Mission San Diego. Fremont, Mission San Jose. San Gabriel, Mission San Gabriel, which has both a font and crown topped Blessed Sacrament lamp, alike gifts of King Charles III of Spain.
A. Royal Administration. Midland, Ste. Marie-among-the-Hurons, reconstruction of French fort and mission with Huron Indian village near shrine of the Canadian Martyrs. Kingston, site of Ft. Frontenac.
A. Royal Administration. Montréal, Château de Ramezay, built in 1705 by the French Governor of Montréal, Claude de Ramezay, and now housing a museum. Trois Riviéres, the Old Recollet Monastery, founded 1698 and later residence of French Governor; Godefroy de Tonnancourt Manor, granted by Louis XIV to de Seigneuret in 1700; Manoire Boucher de Niverville, granted to de Chastelain by Louis XV in 1740. Quebec, Cahteau Frontenac Hotel, on the site of Chateau St. Louis, residence of Governors of New France. Chambly, Ft. Chambly National Park, massive fortification built by French between 1709 and 1711.
B. Royal Patronage of Religion and Education. Montréal, Nôtre Dame Catholic Church, originally founded in 1656, with silver statue of the Madonna presented by Louis XV; Seminary of St. Sulpice built in 1710 as headquarters of Sulpician order, granted seigneurie of Montréal by Louis XIV in 1663.
BRITISH ROYAL REMAINS
Here are a list of places where the student may see surviving evidence of the British Crown’s concern for its American subjects.
A. Royal Administration. Boston, the Old State House with its Royal Coat of Arms on the exterior, and State [King] street; the Ancient and Honourable Artillery Company, founded in 1638 as daughter unit of Honourable Artillery Company of London. Williamsburg, the Silas Snow Farm, granted to Samuel Barber by King George II, in a deed still extant. Cape Cod, where the revival of the name “King’s Highway” caused trouble so late as 1937. Mashpee, whose resident Indian tribe appealed to King George III for self-government, received it, supported the rebels and were rewarded after the Revolution by losing their autonomy again until 1834.
B. Royal Patronage of education and religion. Boston, King’s Chapel, with its intact Royal Governor’s pew with canopy; Old North (Christ Episcopal) Church, built in 1723 with its bells inscribed “We are the first ring of bells cast for the British Empire in North America.” Newbury, St. Paul’s Episcopal church, originally Queen Anne’s Chapel, built in 1711.
A. Royal administration. Phipps Point, site of childhood home of Sir William Phipps, Maine native who rose to become Royal Governor of Massachusetts during Salem trials. In Bath, Peterson House, home of the King’s timber agent. Wicasset, the Pownalborough Courthouse. Castine, Ft. George, built by British during Revolution. Portland, the site of Ft. New Casco.
A. Royal Administration. Portsmouth, The Wentworth Home, residence of John Wentworth, last Royal Governor, from which he was driven by a mob; Old State House, former seat of Provincial Assembly. Odiorne’s Point, Benning Wentworth Mansion, palatial residence of penultimate Royal Governor. New Castle, Library maintains copy of town charter granted by William and Mary in 1693; Ft. Constitution, originally Ft. William and Mary, seized by the rebels in 1774. Randolph, granted by King George III in 1772 to John Durnand and others of London.
B. Royal Patronage to Religion and Education. Portsmouth, St. John’s Episcopal Church (formerly Queen’s Chapel) with pulpit, two mahogany chairs, and communion set (all bearing the Royal Arms) presented by Queen Caroline. Hanover, Dartmouth University, established under a charter granted by George III in 1769; at the University, gifts from Royal Governor John Wentworth, including a silver punchbowl still used at college functions, a large and ornate badge presented to each president at his inauguration, and a large tract of land in the north of the colony still called the Dartmouth College Grant. Nashua, the Public Library maintains original charter from George II to the Town of Dunstable given in 1746.
A. Royal Administration; Rhode Island a Corporate Colony with elected Governor. Providence, Old State House, one of two centres of government under the Crown; 1663 Charter granted by King Charles II on display outside Senate Chambers in State House, site of Jabez Bowens House, from the balcony of which the accession of George III was proclaimed. Newport, Old Colony House, one of two centres of government under the Crown; Newport Artillery Armoury, headquarters of the Newport Artillery Company, chartered in 1741; the Wanton-Lyman-Hazard House, in which Governor Joseph Wanton lived when he was deposed in 1775—he also owned the Hunter House; Dudley Place, home of Charles Dudley, Royal Collector of Customs for Rhode Island, and forced to flee to England in 1775. Portsmouth, Honyman House, home of James Honyman, Jr., King’s Advocate for the Court of Vice-Admiralty, and confiscated after British withdrawal in 1779.
B. Royal Patronage of Religion and Education. Providence, St. John’s Episcopal Church, called until 1822 Queen’s Chapel. Newport, Trinity Episcopal Church, with a bell and communion service donated by Queen Anne in 1709, a crown on the spire forgotten for removal by the rebels, and an organ surmounted by a crown on one side and a mitre on the other; The Redwood Library and Athenaeum, organised in 1730 and incorporated in 1747, it received a gift of 84 books from George II.
A. Royal Administration. Hartford, the barracks of the Governor’s Foot Guards, and their 18th Century British uniforms. Madison, the Stevens Farm, operated by the same family since 1675, whose current representatives still hold the original grant to the property given them by Charles II. Southbury, a Common called the “King’s Land,” because, although property of the Crown, it was not seized by the town at the Revolution, and so to this day is held to belong still to the Sovereign.
A. Royal Administration. New York City, civic coat-of-arms identical to-day to the one granted by the King, save for the replacement of the crown by an eagle; Grant of Pelham Manor to Thomas Pell (ancestor of Senator Claiborne Pell) confirmed by James II; Federal Hall (on site of Government House); Bowling Green, site of famous equestrian statue of George III pulled down and melted (although pieces of it are in the New York Historical Society collection), while ornamental crowns on fence pickets were snapped off; The Customs House, site of Ft. Amsterdam (later Ft. George) which contained Governor’s House built for Peter Stuyvesant and used by all Dutch and English Governors thereafter until 1783); the New York Chamber of Commerce, chartered by George III in 1770; New York Hospital, chartered by George III in 1771. Crown Point, ruins of Ft. St. Frederic , built by the French; Ft. Crown Point, built to replace the latter by the British. Ticonderoga, Ft. Ticonderoga, built by French—major British garrison until seized by rebels under Ethan Allen. Harmon, Van Cortlandt Manor House, built in 1749 and boasting in front room charter from William III to Oloff Van Cortlandt, first Lord of the Manor. Oswego, Ft. Ontario, built by the British in 1756 and occupied by them until 1796. Youngstown, Ft. Niagara, built by the French in 1725, occupied by the British and relinquished by them in 1796. Beacon-Newburgh Ferry, operating under charter granted in 1743 by King George II to Alexander Colden. Hyde Park, St. James’ Episcopal Church, built 1811 on land donated by Dr. Samuel Bard from the tract granted his family by Queen Anne. Wappingers’ Falls, the Treasure Chest Tavern, in which is original charter granted by George II for the site.
B. Royal Patronage of Religion and Education. New York City, St. Paul’s Episcopal Chapel with Royal Governor’s pew; Trinity Episcopal Church, still legally owned by H.M. the Queen; The Queen’s Farm, the land west of Broadway to the Hudson bounded by Christopher and Fulton Streets—given by Queen Anne to Trinity, it remains a large part of that Church’s endowment; St. Paul’s Episcopal Chapel, with Royal Governor’s pew; King’s College (now Columbia University) founded in 1754 under charter of George II New York Society Library, although founded in 1754, chartered by George III in 1772. The Bronx, Fordham Dutch Reformed Church, organised in 1696 under charter granted by William III. Staten Island, St. Andrew Episcopal Church, chartered by Queen Anne in 1713 and presented by her with communion silver and a bell; Old Dutch Reformed Church, erected on land donated by Royal Governor Hunter in 1714. Albany, St. Peter’s Episcopal Church, with replica of communion service presented by Queen Anne in 1712. Fort Hunter, Queen Anne’s Episcopal Parsonage, built in 1712 at the Queen’s order as part of the Royal Chapel of the Mohawks, transferred after the Revolution (with the communion silver) to Brantford, Ontario. Clyde, St. John’s Episcopal Church, with organ originally presented by Queen Anne to New York’s Trinity Church.
A. Royal Administration. Burlington, West Jersey Proprietors’ Office, headquarters of the successor of the original grantees of West Jersey, still functioning under the charter granted them by Charles II; Governor Franklin Estate, site of the home of Governor William Franklin, last Royal Governor of New Jersey, son of Benjamin, who suffered imprisonment in this house and exile for his loyalty. Perth Amboy, The Westminster, residence of Governor William Franklin, where he was imprisoned for a time in punishment for attempting to convene the colonial assembly; East Jersey Proprietors’ Office, equivalent of their colleagues in Burlington. Salem, Bradway House, residence of several Royal Governors.
B. Royal Patronage of Religion and Education. Burlington, Library, functioning under 1757 charter from King George II, and boasts a painting of him; Old St. Mary’s Episcopal Church, with communion plate given by Queen Anne. New Brunswick, Rutgers University, founded as Queen’s College in 1766 with charter granted by George III. Monmouth Battlefield, Old Tennent Presbyterian church, chartered by George II in 1749. Shrewsbury, Christ Episcopal Church, displaying in its entry way the charter from George II, and carved canopies over the Royal Governor’s pew.
A. Royal Administration. Philadelphia, Independence Hall, originally State House of the Province; Bartram’s Gardens, botanical gardens founded by John Bartram, “American Botanist to King George III.” Pittsburgh, the Fort Pitt Blockhouse, part of fort erected by British employed Swiss Colonel Henry Bouquet to replace the French Ft. Duquesne built nearby. Reading, Penn’s Commons, city park reserved as public common for the town in 1748 by the Penn family, Lords Proprietor under the Crown of the Province of Pennsylvania. Pennsbury, Pennsbury Manor, estate of William Penn, to whom King James II granted Pennsylvania. Waterford, ruins of Ft. Le Boeuf, built by the French in 1753, and occupied by the British six years later.
B. Royal Patronage of Religion and Education. Philadelphia, Christ Episcopal Church, a medallion of George II in the front façade, over the large palladian window, as well as several Royal Coats of Arms in the church, and a silver communion set given by Queen Anne in 1708.
A. Royal Administration. New Castle, the former State House (now County Courthouse); the Green where the State House pictures of the King and Queen were burned on 4 July 1776.
B. Royal Patronage of Religion and Education. New Castle, Immanuel Episcopal church, recipient of altar cloths, pulpit, a box of glass, and communion silver from Queen Anne, only the latter of which remain. Middletown, Old St. Anne’s Episcopal church, with a piece of an altar cloth embroidered with the silk letters A.R. (Anne Regina), given by Queen Anne. Broad Creek Hundred, Christ Episcopal church, formerly possessing a bible given in 1777 by George III’s Queen, Charlotte.
MARYLAND AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
A. Royal Administration. Annapolis, the State House, built in 1772 as home of colonial legislature—still used by State legislature; the Old Treasury, built in 1695 and used as Governor’s Council Chamber; McDowell Hall—St. John’s College’s administration building, built as Royal Governor’s mansion in 1742; the Nicholson House, home of Royal Governor and meeting place of Assembly 1694-1709. Near Annapolis, Whitehall, summer seat 1766 to 1769 or Royal Governor Horatio Sharpe. In Elkridge, site of port of entry outfitted with special British excise and customs agents for assessing tobacco shipped from thence. St. Mary’s City, St. Mary’s Statehouse, reconstruction of first Maryland seat of government first erected in 1676.
B. Royal Patronage of Religion and Education. Annapolis, St. Anne’s Episcopal church, with communion silver presented by King William III in 1695; St. John’s College, established as successor to King William’s School, established under Royal Charter in 1696. Kingsville, St. John’s Episcopal Church, with communion set presented by Queen Anne. Church Hill, St. Luke’s Episcopal church, chancel-tablets of the Lord’s Prayer and the Ten Commandments, both presented by Queen Anne. Centerville, St. Paul’s Episcopal church, with chalice and flagon given by Queen Anne. Church Creek, Old Trinity Episcopal church, possessing a chalice given by Queen Anne and a red velvet cushion upon which she knelt at her coronation. Snow Hill, All Hallows Episcopal church, with a Bible dated 1701, and presented by Queen Anne.
A. Royal Administration. Williamsburg, the Governor’s Palace, home of the Royal Governors; the Colonial Capitol, seat of the House of Burgesses and the Council. Norfolk, granted a charter by George II in 1736, received also a civic mace in 1753, still kept there. Walkerton, against whom in 1748 the House of Burgesses passed a bill to prevent their inhabitants thereat from building wooden chimneys or raising hogs—George II vetoed this in 1753; Enfield, granted to the Waller family by Charles II. Pamunkey Indian Reservation, which tribe, by the 1677 treaty securing its land, acknowledges “their immediate dependency on” the King of England, in token of which the tribe was given a velvet and silver “crown.”
B. Royal Patronage of Religion and Education. Williamsburg, Bruton Parish Episcopal Church, the place of worship of the Royal Governors, complete with canopied pew for them bearing the Royal Arms, and three communion sets presented by three different Governors. the College of William and Mary chartered by those monarchs in 1693 under the name “Their Majesties’ Royal College of William and Mary, in Virginia,” and granted a coat of arms by the College of Arms in London the following year. Aquia, site of the Brenton Tract, granted by James II in 1686 for the free exercise of the Catholic religion. Pungoteague, St. George’s Episcopal Church, with communion service given by Queen Anne. Eastville, Hungar’s Episcopal Church, with vestments presented by Queen Anne. Port Royal, Vauter’s Episcopal Church with communion service presented by Queen Anne.
A. Royal Administration. Ona, centre of Savage Grant, given by George III to John Savage.
A. Royal Administration. New Bern, Tryon’s Palace, completely restored seat of government for the colony, and model for Government House at Nassau in the Bahamas. Fayetteville, the Purdy House, on land granted to the Purdy family before the Revolution by George III. Aberdeen, Old Bethesda Presbyterian Church, built on five-acre tract granted to John Patterson by King George III. Mount Holly, built on a grant from George II.
B. Royal Patronage of Religion and Education. New Bern, Christ Episcopal Church, with communion service, bible, and prayer-book given by George II in 1752. Edenton, St. Paul’s Episcopal Church, with silver chalice given in 1701 by Francis Nicholson, Royal Governor of North Carolina. Brunswick, ruins of St. Philip’s Episcopal Church, formerly His Majesty’s Chapel in the Colony, where the Royal Governors worshipped. Bath, St. Thomas Episcopal Church, with silver altar candelabra given by George II, and a bell and (formerly) a chalice given by Queen Anne.
A. Royal Administration. Charleston, the Huger House, residence of Lord William Campbell, last Royal Governor of the Province who was forced to flee in 1775; the William Bull House, residence of William Bull, Jr., Lieutenant Governor to Lord William Campbell; the Stuart House, residence of Colonel John Stuart, Commissioner of Indian Affairs in the South, who was forced to flee for his loyalty in 1775; the County Court house, built within the walls of the former Government House after it burned in 1788. Columbia, the State Capitol, housing in the Senate Chamber the Sword of State, and in the House of Representatives, the mace (bearing the Royal Arms of Great Britain, the arms of Hanover, and those of the Province of South Carolina), used by their pre-revolutionary predecessors, the Council and House of Commons. Georgetown, the Winyah Indigo Society Hall, seat of a fraternal organisation given a charter by George II in 1758. Kingstree, settled in 1732 around a white pine earlier marked to reserve it as a potential mast for His Majesty’s ships—after that, all the white pines in the area were so reserved in land grants, and to this day the streets of Kingstree curve around so as to preserve them. Society Hill, centre of Welsh Neck, a tract granted by George II in 1736. Roebuck, Fredonia, ancestral home of the Moore family, granted to them by George III in 1763. Union, Forest Hills Estate, granted to Thomas Flectall by George III in 1772.
B. Royal Patronage of Religion and Education. Goose Creek, Goose Creek Church, still bears the Royal Arms over the chancel.
A. Royal Administration. Savannah, Wright Square named after last Royal Governor, James Wright (forced to flee in January 1776, returned with British troops to run colony in 1779, staying until final withdrawal); Telfair House, mansion built on site of Government House fled by Governor Wright. Outside Savannah, Lebanon, a plantation granted by King George II in 1756 and 1758 to James Devaux and Philip Delegal; Wild Hern Plantation, granted by George II in 1755 to Francis Harris. On St. Simon’s Island, the ruins of Ft. Frederica; Refuge Plantation, granted by King George III in 1765 to James Houstoun McIntosh. Near Darien, Ft. King George State Historic Site. Waynesboro, Bellevue Plantation, granted by King George III in 1767 to Samuel Eastlake, a copy of which grant, signed by Royal Governor James Wright remains in the family’s possession.
A. Royal Patronage of Religion and Education. Quebec, Anglican Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, with communion silver given by George III in 1768.
Boston , Thomas Hutchinson, last civilian Royal Governor; Congregational Minister Mather Byles and his remarkable Loyalist daughters; the Loring-Greenough House, residence of noted Loyalist Commodore Joseph Loring, distinguished in Conquest of Canada. Brookline, sites of residences of Loyalist Henry Moulton, Mandamus Councillor for the King, and a Mr. Jackson, who sold his home and left rather than quarter rebel troops. Cambridge, on Brattle Street, “Tory Row,” fine houses built by prominent Loyalists before the Revolution, from whence they were driven out by a mob in 1774: most famous of these—The Longfellow House, later residence of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, but built in 1759 by Loyalist Major John Vassall; the Nicholls-Lee House, residence of Joseph Lee, Loyalist so generally beloved in neighbourhood that he was allowed to return to his unconfiscated house after the war. Salem, the Ropes Mansion, home of Judge Ropes, prominent Loyalist whose ghost is said still to haunt the place; the Hawthorne Birthplace, where Nathaniel Hawthorne, author of several Loyalist-sympathetic pieces, was born. Woburn, birthplace and statue of Count Rumford, famed Loyalist scientist. Fall River, the Old Church House, residence of Loyalist who signalled British via flags and lights. Wenham, the Henry Hobbs House, built in 1747, residence of Loyalist Nathaniel Brown, who escaped attempts to tar-and-feather him by the Marblehead Company. Danvers, the Page House, where the Loyalist wife, when told by her rebel husband she could not serve British taxed tea under his roof, held a tea-party on the roof. Ashland, the residence of Lady Agnes Frankland, widow of a Crown Official who retired to a manor-house built in the town—Lady Agnes, living alone, was forced to flee for her Loyalism in 1775. Littleton Center, the Old Tory House, home of Reverend Daniel Rogers, Loyalist whose neighbours attempted to force him to change sympathies by shooting through his door. Royalston, the lands of Isaac Royal, after whose expulsion for Loyalty, cultivation proved impossible on, allegedly for supernatural reasons. Chester, originally Murrayfield, named after John Murray, treasurer of the proprietors, who was forced to leave and forbidden to return in 1778, by virtue of his Loyalty. Middlefield, whence a number of Loyalists were expelled. Vineyard Haven, the Haunted House, occupied during the Revolution by a Loyalist called Daggett, who was often visited secretly by British officers. Chatham, which town voted against adoption of the Declaration of Independence. New Bedford, the “Tory Houses,” known by the black and white chimneys, so painted as to warn British raiders to spare them. Worcester, the Timothy Paine Home—Paine, a Mandamus Councilor, refused to renounce his allegiance and toasted the King in front of John Adams. Barnstable, the site of the Liberty Pole, which after its mysterious cutting down, was the cause of the tarring and feathering of the outspoken Loyalist, the Widow Nabby Freeman. Hancock, home of Loyalist Richard Jackson, whose honourable nature did not permit him to escape imprisonment despite the opportunity—which led to an unconditional pardon. Pittsfield, the Old Peace Party House, home of Loyalist Lucretia Williams, who to the end of her life professed her faithfullness to the King and called the Revolution “the Rebellion”; the Pittsfield Country Club, built as residence by Henry Van Schaack, driven from postmaster’s position in Albany for New York for his loyalty at the Revolution. Lenox, Tory Cave, refuge of Gideon Smith, one of many Loyalists in town during the war. Great Barrington, home of many Loyalists, most notably magistrate David Ingersoll, who lost everything for the Crown, and was banished to England. Dalton, home of the Williams family, noted Loyalists.
Wicasset ,formerly named Pownalborough after Loyalist Dr. Pownal. Emery Corner (Buxton Town), the Tory Hill Meeting House, successor to church pastored by Reverend Paul Coffin, who with many of his parishioners was a Loyalist.
Portsmouth , Haven Park, site of home of Edward Parry, Loyalist merchant whose home was attacked for unloading East India Co. tea; Pitt Tavern, until attacked in 1777 called the Earl of Halifax tavern and a gathering place for Loyalists; the Spence House, home of Robert Traill, comptroller of the port until the outbreak of war and forced to leave the province at the opening of the war. Concord, several Loyalists imprisoned during Revolution; the Rolfe and Rumford Home, residence of Count Rumford before his expulsion. Claremont, Tory Hole, used until 1780 as refuge by Loyalists.
Arlington , a stronghold of Anglicanism before the Revolution (its settlers had fled Puritanism in Connecticut and had the only Maypoles and Christmas celebrations in Vermont at the time), was so loyal that its neighbours called it “Tory Hollow.”
East Greenwich , location of marker where Loyalists gathered in 1774 to rout out rebels. Bristol, Senator Bradford House, home of Loyalist Colonel Isaac Royall of Medford, member of the Provincial Council for 22 years—driven from his home in 1776, he nevertheless left at his 1781 death in England 2000 acres of land in Worcester County to found first Harvard law professorship.
Danbury , the “Tory Houses,” carefully marked with white and black chimneys to prevent their burning during Tryon’s raid in 1777. New Haven, the Tory Tavern, meeting place of local Loyalists and confiscated from owner Nicholas Callahan in 1781—now home of Yale’s elite Elihu Club. Redding Ridge, the Episcopal church, successor to the one headed for 50 years by noted Loyalist priest John Beach. Newtown, noted Loyalist centre during Revolution, another Episcopal church jointly pastored by Rev. Beach. Woodbury, the Glebe House, home of the Rev. John Rutgers Marshall, nearby Loyalist rector of St. John’s Episcopal Church. Plymouth, Chippens Hill, Loyalist gathering place, and site of Leroy B. Pond’s book, Tories of Chippeny Hill.. Bristol, the site of Moses Dunbar’s execution (Dunbar’s last will and testament is a beautiful testimony to the nobility of the Loyalist cause). Brooklyn, the Malbone Episcopal church, built in 1771 by noted Loyalist landholder Godfrey Malbone; Putnam Elms, Malbone’s manor later passing into hands of his enemy, General Israel Putnam. Hebron, St. Peter’s Episcopal church, formerly rectored by Rev. Samuel Peters, Loyalist cleric who, after public humiliation on village green, fled to England (where he wrote a very funny history of Connecticut in which he coined the now universal phrase, “Blue Laws”). On Mt. Riga, a “lost people” called the “Raggies,” alleged to be descended from stranded Hessians. West Woodstock (famed stop on the King’s Highway), the birthplace of Col. Joshua Chandler, Jr., Loyalist who with his son and daughter was forced to flee during the Revolution, and was drowned off the coast of Newfoundland. New Milford, Tory’s Hole, a cavern where local Loyalists hid from the terrorism of the “Sons of Liberty.” Hartland, the remains of the house of Consider Tiffany, confined to the grounds for his Loyalty for the Revolution—afterwards, he refused to leave as a continuing rebuke to his neighbours. Granby, Newgate, a horrible prison where Loyalists were confined for their beliefs under incredibly inhuman conditions. Woodbury, the Glebe House, where eloquent Loyalist cleric and propagandist Samuel Seabury was elected first Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church in the U.S.
New York City , Fraunces Tavern, called Queens’ Head Tavern before British evacuation in 1783, and a Loyalist gathering place; Morris-Jumel Mansion, built by Loyalist Roger Morris and seized from him in 1783. Amsterdam, Guy Park, home of Loyalist leader Colonel Guy Johnson, nephew and son-in-law of Sir William. The Bronx, Vault Hill, grave of Augustus Van Cortlandt, member of the manorial family, clerk of the Common Council of New York, and sole prominent member of his family to remain loyal; Edenwald, a section formerly comprising the estate of the Seton family, descended from Mary Seton, of Mary Queen of Scots’ “four Maries,” Loyalists in the Revolution, and among whom by marriage was St. Elizabeth Seton, first native-born American Catholic saint. Queens, home to a large number of Loyalists who emigrated to Newfoundland in 1783. Staten Island, the Conference House, where Howe and Washington held a parley in 1776, it was owned by Loyalist Colonel Thomas Billopp; the Kreuzer-Pelton House, used as headquarters during the Revolution by Loyalist militia leader Cortlandt Skinner. Fort Johnson, Ft. Johnson, stronghold of Loyalist Johnson clan, founded by Sir William Johnson, Joseph Brant’s brother-in-law. Johnstown, their other home, Johnson Hall—from it Sir William’s son, Sir John, fled with 700 tenants (some of whom later joined his two battalions of “Royal Greens”) to Montreal in May of 1776. Fonda, Butler House, centre of Butlersbury Manor, home of Walter Butler, organiser of the Loyalist regiment, Butler’s Rangers. Palatine Ridge, Palatine Church, built by German settlers in 1770—one of the families responsible for it were the Nellises, whose loyalties were split in the Revolution: it was saved by a Loyalist member of the family during a raid, and to this day Nellises from Canada attend the annual reunion held here. Schenectady, St. George’s Episcopal Church, reputed grave of Loyalist chief Walter Butler (Butler’s Rangers), secretly buried there in 1781. Yonkers, Philipse Hall, centre of Philipsburgh Manor, granted by William III in 1693 to Frederick Philipse, and confiscated from his Loyal great grandson in 1779. Sloatsburg, nearby the Ramapo Mountains, in which,as over the border in New Jersey, are the “Jackson Whites.” Tuxedo, the Claudius Smith Caves, named after the leader of a band of Loyalist raiders who operated from them. Van Cortlandtville, Gallows Hill, where Loyalist spy Edward Palmer was hanged in 1777 by order of General Israel Putnam. Sharon Center, headquarters for Loyalists under Captain John Dockstader until their defeat by rebels in 1781. Cherry Valley, site of a victory against the rebels by Loyalists and Indians under Walter Butler and Mohawk chief Joseph Brant. Cobleskill, sit of a victory against the rebels by Loyalists and Indians led by Joseph Brant. Ft. Plain, Indian Castle Church, last remaining part of Chief Joseph Brant, head of the Loyal Mohawks. Whitehall, site of Skenesborough, manor of Loyalist Major Philip Skene, who after losing all to the rebels, guided Burgoyne through the area. North Tarrytown, Castle Philipse, owned by the Loyalist lord of Philipseburgh Manor, and like it confiscated by the rebels. Oyster Bay, Raynham Hall, headquarters of Loyalist Lieutenant Colonel John Simcoe and his Queen’s Rangers. Massapequa, Tryon Hall, home of Loyalist Judge Thomas Jones. Poughkeepsie, the Glebe House, residence of Christ Episcopal Church’s first rector, Reverend John Beardsley, from 1767 to 1777, when he was exiled for his Loyalism; he was rector also of Trinity Episcopal Church in Fishkill Village.
Burlington , Old St. Mary’s Episcopal Church, pastored by Reverend Jonathan Odell, foremost Loyalist poet of the Revolution. New Brunswick, centre of Loyalist sentiment, with site of Cochrane’s Tavern, owned by well-known Loyalist Bernardus Le Grange, whose effigy was burned and property seized. Elizabeth, The Old Chateau, home of the Cavalier Jouet who lost it due to his loyalty to George III. Morristown, the Kemble House, built in 1750 by noted Loyalist Dr. Peter Kemble. Newton, Moody’s Rock, refuge of a band of Loyalist raiders led by James (Bonnel) Moody, whose account of their adventures was published in London in 1783. Verona, a town owned originally by Loyalist Caleb Hetfield. Butler, a large number of whose people descend from Hessian troops who elected to stay after the Revolution ended. Ringwood, centre for the Ramapo Mountains, inhabited by the “Jackson Whites” descendants of British Camp Followers expelled from New York after that city’s evacuation by the British in 1783, stranded Hessians, blacks, and Indians—some spoke Dutch as late as 1905. Spotswood, ruins of pioneer iron works owned by Loyalists, confiscated and allowed to fall apart by the rebel state authorities. High Bridge, site of Taylor Home, where John Penn, last Royal Governor of Pennsylvania and descendant of William was held prisoner for six months in 1776 on order of the Continental Congress. River Edge, the Steuben House, owned by the Loyalist Zabriskie brothers, it was confiscated from them and given in 1783 as a reward to Baron von Steuben—he in turn sold it back to the Zabriskies. Nutley, whose main street bears the name Franklin in honour of Governor William; the Old Nutley Manor, seized from Loyalist owners. Toms River, site of Loyalist raid which ended in hanging of notorious anti-Loyalist Capt. Joshua Huddy by victims of his depredations—in reprisal Washington ordered hanging of a British officer, to avoid which General Sir Guy Carleton apologised and dissolved the Loyalist organisation responsible. Shacks Corner, Our House Tavern, stronghold of one Fenton leader of a local band of Loyalist raiders’ Fagin’s Cave, another such hideout. Colt’s Neck, Colt’s Neck Inn, onetime property of the Notorious Captain Josua Huddy, once besieged here by 60 Loyalists led by ex-slave Col. Titus Tye; in the area south of the town were several bands of Loyalists called “Pine Robbers. Allenwood, granite marker commemorating the execution of seven Loyalists. Pine Barrens, region inhabited by so-called “Pineys”, whose ancestors were forced to flee to this desolate region for their Loyalty. Hancock’s Bridge, the William Hancock, where Loyalist Judge Hancock was mistakenly killed by fellow Loyalists under Major, John Simcoe who were attacking the rebels occupying the house. Greenwich, site of Greenwich tea party, when town’s Loyalists attempted to save tea bound for Philadelphia from destruction.
Philadelphia , the University of Pennsylvania, whose initial endowment fund after rechartering as a republican institution was made up of the proceeds from 60 confiscated Loyalist estates; the residence here of noted Tory Radical William Cobbett; the Randolph Mansion, home of Samuel Shoemaker, Loyalist mayor of Philadelphia, who left with the British in 1778; Ormiston Mansion, built in 1798 on confiscated estate of Joseph Galloway, Loyalist politician, theorist, and philosopher. Langhorne, the Hicks House, where Royal official Gilbert Hicks read General Howe’s Amnesty Proclamation on 30 November 1776—for which act he was forced to flee. Allentown, Trout Hall, place of house arrest for James Hamilton, Loyalist cousin of Benjamin Franklin. Bristol, the Delaware House Hotel, originally George II Hotel until Rebel soldiers forcibly changed the name. Maytown, Donegal Presbyterian Church, whose Loyalist pastor, the Reverend Mr. McFarquar, was made to lift his hat to the Revolution at gunpoint. Neshaminy, Graeme Park and the Keith House, owned by Loyalist Henry Fergusson, who served with the British and was convicted of High Treason in absentia. Snowshoe Mountain, home of the “Mountaineers,” a people who descend in part from ancestors driven out of the valleys for their loyalty to the King. Germantown, Chew Mansion, residence of noted Loyalist Benjamin Chew.
Lewes , the site where 1000 Loyalists gathered on 11 June 1775 to fight for the King—they dispersed after assurances that the rebel leaders wanted redress, not independence. Milford, the home of Parson Sydenham Thorne, rector of Christ Church, who despite his loyalty was so beloved that he was left unmolested until his death in 1793. Middletown, Old St. Anne’s Episcopal churchyard, with grave of Loyalist rector Rev Philip Reading. Leipsic, Pleasanton Abbey, gathering place of Loyalists under local leader Henry Stevens. Down’s Chapel, the site of the fort of Cheney Clow, local Loyalist chief, hanged after the war.
Annapolis , Masonic Temple, built in 1770 as home of Lloyd Dulany, prominent Loyalist and kinsman of Loyalist writer Daniel Dulany—confiscated by State. Baltimore, St. Paul’s Churchyard, with grave of prominent Loyalist, Daniel Dulany. Frederick, the site of the Tory Gaol, where, of seven prominent Loyalists imprisoned here in 1780, three were hanged, drawn, and quartered. Near Bertha, Point Patience Manor, granted to John Aschcomb (Ascham) in 1661, and confiscated from the Aschams at the time of the Revolution as a result of their loyalty. Near Davidsonville, St. Barnabas Episcopal church and Mt. Lubentia, living and residence 1770-1774 of noted Loyalist Rev. Jonathan Boucher. Keysville, Terra Rubra, birthplace of Francis Scott Key (author of the “Star-spangled Banner”), and of his Loyalist uncle, owner of half the estate who joined the British army during the Revolution.
Williamsburg , Tazewell Hall, residence of John Randolph, Attorney General for the colony, and unlike his brother and son, so staunch a Loyalist that he left for England at the outbreak of hostilities. Norfolk, so filled with Loyalists that after the last Royal Governor, Lord Dunmore, was forced out of the town, the rebels burned all save the Episcopal Church. Portsmouth, home of Loyalist merchant Andrew Sprowle, who gave refuge to Lord Dunmore after he fled Norfolk—upon the latter’s withdrawal, the rebels torched Portsmouth as they had Norfolk. Winchester, Christ Episcopal Church, in Church-yard, grave of Loyalist Lord Fairfax, proprietor of the Northern Neck of Virginia. King And Queen, site of Laneville, home of Loyalist Richard Corbin. Whitepost, Greenway Court, home of Loyalist proprietor, Lord Fairfax. Gwynn’s Island, site of Lord Dunmore’s last stand in Virginia. Great Bridge, site of battle between Lord Dunmore’s men and the rebels which allowed the latter to seize the land approach to Norfolk. Kempsville, home of Loyalist George Logan, where Governor Dunmore rallied the locals to the King’s colours. Amelia, St. John’s Episcopal Church, whose Loyalist rector, Reverend John Brunskill, was not allowed by his rebel parishioners to hold services, but lived on in the glebe house until his death in 1803. Westover Plantation, home of the Loyalist Byrd family, whose material aid to the British was so carefully concealed that they did not lose Westover as a result.
Romney , centre of operations of a Loyalist company led by John Claypole.
New Bern , Christ Episcopal Church-yard, with grave of Reverend James Reed, Loyalist first rector. Edenton, the Cupola House, formerly the scene of large celebrations of the King’s birthday, and possessing, on a fireback, a likeness and the arms of George II in bas-relief. Wilmington, Lilliput Plantation and Old Palace Field, properties owned by Josiah Martin, last Royal Governor, and confiscated by the rebels. Fayetteville, residence for a few months in 1774 of Flora MacDonald, heroine of Bonnie Prince Charlie’s 1746 flight after Culloden, and her husband, Col. Allan MacDonald, who commanded the local Jacobite Scots settlers in the King’s interest at the opening of the Revolution; Cool Spring, where Flora rallied the Highlanders for King George. Southport, Ft. Johnston, refuge of Governor Josiah Martin after he was forced out of New Bern, and until driven out by rebels. Colerain, Mill Landing Farm, owned by the Loyalist Duckenfield family until their expulsion. Halifax, the Old Gaol, where 41 Scots Highland leaders including Col. Allan MacDonald, were imprisoned after their defeat by the rebels at Moore’s Creek Bridge in March 1776. Raeford, site of battle of McFall Mill or Raft Swamp on 1 September 1781—a rebel force was defeated by Loyalists under Colonels Ray, McDougal, David Fanning, and “Sailor” Hector McNeill. Pittsboro, Chatham County Court House, site of raid and daring rescue by Loyalists led by Davi Fanning while a court-martial trying other Loyalists was in session. Cross Hill, site where Loyalists rendezvoused in February 1776 under General Donald MacDonald and Colonel Allan MacDonald. Hillsboro, raided by Loyalists under David Fanning and Hector McNeill on 13 September 1781. Red Springs, built on land granted to Colonel Hector McNeill, Loyalist chief, many of whose descendants still reside here. Moore’s Creek Bridge National Military Park, site of battle on 27 February 1776 between Loyalist-Jacobite Scots under General Donald MacDonald and Colonel Allan MacDonald and rebels—the defeat of the former prevented their linking up with Governor Josiah Martin’s forces and putting an end to the rebellion in North Carolina. Wilkesboro, the Tory Oak, from which five Loyalists were hung by rebel Colonel Benjamin Cleveland—one of these, William Riddle, had spared Cleveland’s life under similar circumstances. Elizabethtown, Tory Hole, near site of August 1781 battle of Elizabethtown, where Loyalists fled after defeat.
Greenville , the home of Colonel Richard Pearis, daring Loyalist militia leader. Traveler’s Rest, centre of operations of Loyalist guerrilla leader, William Bates. Chesnee, named after the Loyalist Chesney family, one of whom, Andrew, wrote a famous journal of his experiences in the Revolution. Waterloo, site of Rosemont Manor, home of the Cunninghams, a Loyalist family led by Patrick, to whom George III granted the land in 1769—they were able to return after a sojourn in the West Indies.
Savannah , the McIntosh House, which as Eppinger’s Inn was a Loyalist meeting place. Augusta, takeover of town in 1780 by Loyalist colonels Grierson and Browne, the latter of whom had been tarred-and-feathered there by a rebel mob five years previously—they successfully endured a four day siege in the Old White House after a rebel counterattack in September. Rincon, the site of Mulberry Grove Plantation, owned by Lieutenant Governor John Graham, but confiscated after the Revolution and given to rebel General Nathanael Greene.
St. Augustine , the first Floridian newspaper, the East Florida Gazette, published by Loyalist Charlestonian William Charles Wells. Riviera, mixed blood (English, Black, Indian) Conchs—descendants of Loyalists who fled to the Bahamas. Key West, white Conchs, likewise Loyalist descendants.
Green Bay , French and British settlers remained loyal to Crown during both Revolution and War of 1812, many serving in both wars against Americans—U.S. control only established in 1816; home of Charles Michel de Langlade (1729-1800, who led Indians against the rebels during the Revolution.
Natchez , a refuge for Loyalists fleeing the Revolution, until American occupation in 1798. Guntown, named for Virginia Loyalist James Gunn, who fled here, married the daughter of a Chickasaw Indian chief, and toasted the King on the latter’s birthday until he died.
East and West Feliciana Parishes , descendants of Loyalists who fled U.S. rule after the Revolution.
Niagara-On-The-Lake , originally named Butlersburg after Col. John Butler, commander of New York Loyalist regiment, Butler’s Rangers, and who lies buried here in Butler’s Burial Ground. Brantford, refuge of Loyalist Mohawks under their chief, Joseph Brant; Her Majesty’s Chapel of the Mohawks, built in 1785, and possessing the communion service given the tribe by Queen Anne when they were in New York. Desoronto, named for Mohawk chief Capt. Desoronto, who lead a band of his loyal tribesmen to the spot after the Revolution; their descendants remain in the nearby reserve of Tyendinaga. Cornwall, originally named New Johnstown, it was settled in 1784 by veterans of Sir John Johnston’s Royal Regiment of New York; plaque at Post Office commemorates their gallantry. Williamstown, named after Sir William Johnston, father of Sir John; here is the manor house built by the latter in 1784. St. Raphael’s, settled by veterans of Sir John’s Royal Highland Emigrants in 1784.
Saint John , founded by New England Loyalist refugees in 1783; Trinity Anglican Church, with wooden Royal coat-of-arms, formerly in the Council Chamber of the Old State House in Boston; the Loyalist House, built in 1817 with many souvenirs of the Loyalists in New Brunswick. St. Andrews, settled by United Empire Loyalists in 1783, and preserving the blockhouse they built for protection.
Shelburne , settled in 1783 by 10,000 Loyalists; the Ross-Thompson House, Loyalist Museum.
TREATY OF THE HOLY ALLIANCE
In the name of the Most Holy and Indivisible Trinity.
Holy Alliance of Sovereigns of Austria, Prussia, and Russia.
Their Majesties the Emperor of Austria, the King of Prussia, and the Emperor of Russia, having, in consequence of the great events which have marked the course of the three last years in Europe, and especially of the blessings which it has pleased Divine Providence to shower down upon those States which place their confidence and their hope in it alone, acquire the intimate conviction of the necessity of settling the steps to be observed by the Powers, in their reciprocal relations, upon the sublime truths which the Holy Religion of our Saviour teaches;
Government and Political Relations
They solemnly declare that the present Act has no other object than to publish, in the face of the whole world, their fixed resolution, both in the administration of their respective States, and in their political relations with every other Government, to take for their sole guide the precepts of that Holy Religion, namely, the precepts of Justice, Christian Charity and Peace, which, far from being applicable only to private concerns, must have an immediate influence on the councils of Princes, and guide all their steps, as being the only means of consolidating human institutions and remedying their imperfections. In consequence, their Majesties have agreed on the following articles:—
Principles of the Christian Religion.
Art. I. Conformably to the words of the Holy Scriptures which command all men to consider each other as brethren, the Three contracting Monarchs will remain united by the bonds of a true and indissoluble fraternity, and considering each other as fellow countrymen, they will, on all occasions and in all places lend each other aid and assistance; and, regarding themselves towards their subjects and armies as fathers of families, they will lead them in the same spirit of fraternity with which they are animated, to protect Religion, Peace, and Justice.
Fraternity and Affection.
Art. II. In consequence, the sole principle of force, whether between the said governments or between their Subjects, shall be that of doing each other reciprocal service, and of testifying by unalterable good will the mutual affection with which they ought to be animated, to consider themselves as all members of one and the same Christian nation; the three allied Princes looking on themselves as merely delegated by Providence to govern three branches of the One family, namely Austria, Prussia and Russia, thus confessing that the Christian world, of which they and their people form a part, has in reality no other Sovereign than Him to whom alone power really belongs, because in Him alone are found all the treasures of love, science and infinite wisdom, that is to say, God, our Divine Saviour, the Word of the Most High, the Word of Life. Their Majesties consequently recommend to their people, with the most tender solicitude, as the sole means of enjoying that Peace which arises from a good conscience, and which alone is durable, to strengthen themselves every day more and more in the principles and exercise of the duties which the Divine Saviour has taught to mankind.
Accession of Foreign Powers.
Art. III. All the Powers who shall choose solemnly to avow the sacred principles which have dictated the present Act, and shall acknowledge how important it is for the happiness of nations, too long agitated, that these truths should henceforth exercise over the destinies of mankind all the influence which belongs to them, will be received with equal ardour and affection into this Holy Alliance.
THE FRENCH OF OLD VINCENNES
The most distinctive national group of Indiana was the early French Creoles who settled along the Wabash River. To the pioneer making his way along the river highways into the wilderness, the wide savannah at Post Vincennes presented a novel picture as it lay spread out before him. Each thatched white cottage was surrounded by its own garden, where the family raised enough food to last the year around. Surplus food was shipped by flatboat to New Orleans. Produce from outlying gardens was brought to the market in the caléche, a two-wheeled cart made entirely of wood, the first vehicle in the old Northwest Territory.
Flatboatmen returning semiannually from New Orleans were welcomed with great joy. It was then that all the new songs learned by the men during their voyage were sung. The songs were long, so each man learned a line of the verse and all learned the chorus. Instead of singing the song through, each man sang his line, and after each line, all joined in the chorus. On these occasions, people stayed up all night learning the songs. These trips to New Orleans were the settlement's only contact with the outside world.
During the holiday balls and at the singings held in the homes, the Creoles sang all their songs. Some of the favorites were "Au Clair de la Lune,""Mon Amour," and "La Belle Françoise.” After the sad strains of "La Belle Françoise," they paused in silence. "Kersie," also called "The False Lover," was the last song sung at the traditional Christmas King Ball of Old Vincennes. Lovers who had quarrelled then made up and walked home together.
New Year was the great Creole holiday. Festivities began with New Year's Eve. The following day masqueraders went from house to house singing and playing old songs and dramas. Early New Year's morning each Creole went to visit the oldest member of his family, and the older people were in turn hosts throughout the day. Each visitor kissed all members of the family.
Many folksongs had a special meaning and use. "L'Alouette" was sung when the French women prepared chickens for the feast. Other songs were "Rose d'Amour" and "Mon Berger.” "La Gui Année," or the "Beggar's Song," thought to be of Druid origin, referred to the New Year mistletoe.
In the folk tales handed down by the early French the Loup Garou was a favorite character. He was a bewitched person who took the form of an animal [a wolf, to be specific]. When the animal was injured to the extent that blood was drawn, the charm vanished and the human form reappeared. Traces of both the "cape of invisibility" and Siegfried legends appear in the Creole lore of Vincennes. Idle tales, perhaps, but each a definite link with Greek, Roman, Celtic, Teutonic, and Scandinavian mythology (W.P.A., Indiana, pp. 123-124).
As late as 1855 the French controlled elections in Knox County. The Indian strain in these early citizens was easily discernible in the high cheek bones and straight black hair of many Creoles. The common attire of the men consisted of buckskin coat, knee breeches, and leggings. During the winter they added moccasins and a capote, a long hooded overcoat made of fur. Neither men nor women wore shoes in the summer. The most common garment worn by the women was the habit, reaching to the knees; under it was usually worn a gaudily colored petticoat that hung down to the ankles. Both sexes were fond of bright colors around the throat and waist, and costumes were often decorated with bright beads in the Indian fashion. (op. cit., pp. 272-3)
THE SETTLING OF NEW BRAUNFELS
New Braunfels added a colorful chapter to the history of Texas. A spick-and-span neatness and a wealth of quaint old houses create a distinct and faintly Old World atmosphere. Here the quixotic Prince Carl Zu Solms-Braunfels, for whom the city is named, established a German settlement in 1845 and, surrounding himself with a retinue of velvet-clad courtiers and soldiers who wore brilliant plumes in their cocked hats, amazed the matter-of-fact Texas pioneers with his magnificence. The Prince was commissioner-general for the Society for the Protection of German Immigrants in Texas, an association of noblemen which undertook to place a great number of colonists. Before the enterprise was well under way the officers of the company discovered that the land they had accepted for colonization was no longer available, as the contract had been canceled. The Prince met a group of immigrants at Carlshafen, later to be called Indianola, headed inland, and finally located on the Comal River. He purchased the site of the town, two leagues of land, from Rafael and Maria Veramendi Garza, of San Antonio, for the sum of $1,111. About 200 immigrants founded the town on Good Friday, March 21, 1845.
On a high hilltop where he could command a view of the country for miles around, the Prince built his fort. Lacking a German flag [which did not exist at the time—JC] he raised the flag of Austria above the building and called it Sophienburg, in honor of his "ladye.” He also raised the Texas flag. Here he lived for a short time in great style. When he received Indians he appeared in the full dress uniform of the Austrian army, of which he was an officer.
The followers of the Prince could not adapt themselves to the wilderness, and lack of training resulted in great privations and hardships. There was much suffering during the first years of the settlement. Prince Carl resigned his post and returned to Germany following the annexation of 1845, leaving New Braunfels even before John O. (Baron von) Meusebach, his successor, arrived.
Approximately 5,000 Germans were landed at Indianola within the next seven months, but no means of transportation from the port to the colony was available. A contract made with teamsters was broken because the outbreak of the war with Mexico led to high-paying army contracts. The colonists were poorly housed at Indianola and soon exposure and hunger brought on an epidemic of a disease that has not been clearly identified. Scores died and in desperation hundreds of others attempted to walk from Indianola to New Braunfels. Weakened, and without sufficient supplies, a great many more died on the way. "The trail from the coast town to the colony was lined with German graves.” Those who survived to reach New Braunfels brought the pestilent fever with them, and it spread rapidly throughout the community. "Two or three died in New Braunfels each day.” The total numbers of deaths from the epidemic, as reported by various authorities, differs greatly, but it was certainly more than 800 and may have been 3,000. Because of suffering and privation many of the settlers, disheartened and broken in spirit, left the town. Meusebach resigned his post in July, 1847. The company continued to administer the affairs of the town until 1858, when an assignment of rights and properties was made to the Texas creditors (W.P.A., Texas, pp. 434-5).
Similar to the saga of New Braunfels is that of another town near San Antonio, Castroville. Settled originally by a mixed band, primarily Alsatians, but including many French, Swiss, Germans, Dutch, Belgians, and Austrians, the only bond they had in common was the Catholic Faith:
Castroville was settled in 1844 by a group of colonists lead by Count Henri de Castro (who, however, signed all papers Henry Castro), and was named in his honor. Castro...first visited Texas in 1842. He found the young republic eager to give away large tracts to anyone who could bring settlers, and the dream of a vast colonization plan came to him. Through the French Legation he met President Sam Houston and other government dignitaries, and secured a colonization contract.
He obtained his first recruits in Alsace, and in November, 1842, a party of 114 men, women, and children sailed for Texas. Their arrival was followed by many disappointments. Castro remained in Europe, and it was not until July of 1844 that he at last joined his colonists at San Antonio. Their number had dwindled sadly. Many, discouraged and disheartened, had abandoned the party and of the original group there but remained 27 who, in September 1844, loaded their plows, pots, pans, and bedding on oxcarts and headed westward into an uncharted wilderness. They toiled through the entangled growth of scrub oak and mesquite until they reached the Medina River. Thereupon they forded at a spot where the highway bridge now crosses, and camp was made in the grove of pecan trees on the west bank. Many of the stately trees of this grove still stand. The promised land was reached, but the newcomers found themselves confronted by the stupendous task of converting virgin wilderness into farms and homes.
All the vicissitudes of pioneering were suffered by the first colonists and their successors. The drought and subsequent famine of 1848 nearly wiped out the colony. Mothers beat the thickets for bird's eggs to feed their children and the parish priest even dined on rattlesnake. One year clouds of insects came down from the sky and ate up all crops. Then an epidemic of cholera prevailed for six weeks, with many fatalities. There were also threats of Indian attacks. One townsman was felled in his own yard by Indian arrows. One old tombstone bears the legend: "Gross killed by Indians."
Grateful for their deliverance, the survivors gave thanks to God by building a new church. The priest went to New Orleans for funds and returned with the money needed. The Church was built of sawed stone and hewn timbers and measured 65 by 40 feet. It was dedicated to King Louis Phillippe of France (pp. 586-7).
The new settlement took; we are further informed that to Castroville's west:
Many of the people are descendants of colonists imported from Central Europe by Count Castro; their language is a mixture of French and German. Among old customs that have survived is that of the Niüe Yar Granz (New Year Ring). On the eve of the holiday women bake a pastry wreath made of lightbread dough, decorated with sugar and spices, and present it to parents or godparents. Another New Year custom is that of thoroughly cleaning out all the houses, to—as one venerable housewife expressed it—'get out all the old year's dirt to make ready for the new.' Black-eyed peas are served on New Year's Day, for to do this, according to an old belief, is to be assured sufficient money in the twelvemonth ahead.
THE SHRINE OF CHIMAYO
The low-flat-roofed adobe church with its tapering front towers and twin belfries is entered through a wall-enclosed garden with towering cottonwoods. It was built as a thanks offering by Don Bernardo Abeyta in 1816, and is very well preserved. The wide main portal is in the center of a thick retaining wall which supports a terrace immediately in front on the church structure. Between the front towers at the gallery level is a narrow porch with timber posts and roof. Here a smaller doorway opens into the choir loft within. The interior is notable for its characteristic Spanish-Pueblo decorations—a heavy timber ceiling of closely spaced vigas, supported at the ends on carved brackets and crude plaster walls lined with a low painted dado and hung with numerous religious paintings. There are also pierced tin candelabra and a small bulto of Santo Niño. In front of the high altar is an interesting chancel rail with perforated wooden balusters. Behind the draped altar is a high reredos, naively decorated with painted conventional designs and religious symbols, and over it a cross found in the pine tree that grew on this site. It is an exact replica of the cross at Esquipulas, [Guatemala] in the Iglesia de Santo Niño.
A privately-owned square chapel about 50 feet from the Santuario also contains a small statue of Santo Niño Perdido, the lost Child. The custodian here will respond to the ringing of a bell, which hangs in the campanile, and sells layettes, blessed on behalf of Santo Niño, to expectant mothers. It is said that these images of Santo Niño go out during the night on errands of mercy to the poor, in consequence of which new shoes must be bought for them every six months, although many thank offerings consist of doll-sized shoes for their wear (W.P.A., New Mexico, pp. 298-299).
FOREIGN VOLUNTEERS WITH THE CONFEDERACY
Even bigger than Hood and more unique was Heros von Borcke, the Prussian volunteer staff officer of Jeb Stuart. His compliments were heavy-handed and his stories exaggerated, but his Old World courtliness and Germanic accent made him charming to many women. In his way, as one of the most deeply loyal Confederates, Von Borcke symbolized in the capital [Richmond] the volunteer foreigners throughout the Southern army.
Many Germans were field and line officers, and others were in special services, like bands and medical corps. Germans were second in number only to the Irish, whose contingent was topped by Major General Cleburne of County Cork. Another foreign major general was Prince de Polignac, who won the admiration of the Texans he led, though they called him Prince Polecat.
Among brigadiers there were four Irishmen and seven other foreign-born. There were thirty foreign-born colonels, including Swedes, Hungarians, Mexicans and Canadians, and several Poles headed by Colonel Oladowskis, Bragg's miserly ordnance officer. Three hundred foreign-born officers were below the rank of colonel, and these included a Greek, a Dane, and a Spaniard. There were Irish priests and English doctors.
Men in the ranks of foreign birth or foreign descent were so numerous that over a hundred companies were composed either partly or almost entirely of them. There were the Spanish Guards of Mobile and the Savannah Steuben Jägers, the Garde Lafayette and the Garibaldi Legion, Emmett and Shamrock and Emerald Guards were scattered everywhere, floating banners with harps and "Erin-go-Bragh.” Two Irish boys in the army were the sons of John Mitchel, the Irish patriot, who made many friends in Richmond (Clifford Dowdey, Experiment in Rebellion, p. 318).
EARLIER INDIAN MISSIONS
ASSININS..., was founded in 1843 by Father Frederick Baraga... At the mission, which he established in order that “ignorance and vice among the Indians might be eradicated”, Father Baraga compiled a grammar and a dictionary of the difficult Ojibway language. When he died in 1868, the ASSININS MISSION was continued; Indians whom he had befriended added several red sandstone buildings to the original group. The mission, with its aging structures and its Indian school, comprises a village by itself. A model farm, established by the priest, earns an annual revenue sufficient to supply most of the needs of the resident Sisters of St. Joseph (W.P.A., Michigan, p. 594).
HARTFORD...ST. DOMINIC’S INDIAN MISSION, a decaying frame structure erected in 1856 by Potawatomi who came here from Cass County when their land was taxed. The church foundation was built of timbers hewn from the forest, and logs were exchanged at a nearby sawmill for the necessary lumber, but the Indians had no money for shingles. Chief Simon Pokagon, who became a writer and lecturer of note, recounts how this difficulty was overcome: “The band, which numbered about 300, came to me to get a job cutting down ten acres of timber that they might obtain money with which to buy the shingles. We came to terms and they agreed to commence cutting the following day. As they left I told them I would be over the next afternoon to see what kind of a job they were doing. I was late and did not arrive until near sundown. Approaching I was surprised to hear what I thought must be a war-whooping pow wow going on. Trees were falling and the braves were shouting, creating a great confusion of sounds. I could hardly decide whether to go ahead or retreat. At length I advanced and saw trees crashing down the whole width of the ten-acre plot in one great front. Moving on I met some of the men...and they informed me that the whole tribe had turned out, and by forming a line along the front and notching the trees, had fallen the timber inward, forcing one tree to knock down the next and the next the one beyond, thereby saving themselves much chopping.” Behind the church is an old POTAWATOMI CEMETERY containing 1,700 graves. About 30 Indians still live in the district (W.P.A., Michigan, p. 406).
CROSS VILLAGE... Most of the inhabitants are members of the Ottawa and Chippewa tribes. The men are engaged in commercial fishing; the women weave baskets of split ash and sweet grass, and fashion birchbark boxes decorated with porcupine quills. During the annual festival, held early in August, the Indians perform their War Dance, Buffalo Dance, Deer Dance, and Sun Dance.
Near the edge of the bluff, a CROSS has stood for more than 200 years. Some claim that the first Cross was planted by Father Marquette; the present one was erected in 1913. The earliest Jesuits named the place Arbre Croche (Fr., crooked tree) and later it was known as La Croix (Fr., the cross)...
In 1855, Father Weikamp established the Society of St. Francis Convent on a 2000-acre tract at the northern end of the village. The convent, which owned large herds, a gristmill, a sawmill, and a carpenter-blacksmith shop, produced everything used by the community from the wooden shoes worn by the nuns to currant wine. The convent was abandoned in 1896, and in 1906 the buildings were struck by lightning and destroyed. The TOMB OF FATHER WEIKAMP...is open to visitors.
The HOLY CROSS CHURCH at the east end of the village, was built in 1898. In the study of the church...is a small WOODEN STATUE of unknown origin, found here in a little log church in 1850. Covered with a thin coating of plaster of Paris, and painted brown, the three-foot statue represents an angel in the traditional garb of St. Raphael, although the features are those of an Indian (W.P.A., Michigan, p. 516).
LEROY... The inhabitants of the town are chiefly metis, and their log cabins are scattered along the river. From the time the Hudson’s Bay Company began operations in 1670, French Canadians migrated westward, intermarrying with Chippewa women. Their children were known as metis or mixed-bloods. Inheriting the characteristics of both the Indian and the French-Canadian woodsman, the metis became adept voyageurs, and their part in the early fur-trade of the Middlewest was very important. They were excellent hunters, couriers, and trappers, and it is said they loved the “musical” sound of the Red River oxcarts, which, with their unlubricated wooden axles and hubs screeching across the plains, brought furs E. from the trading posts.
When this region began to be settled the metis were the first mail carriers, since their stamina and knowledge of the frontier made them “brave and bold, and the most reliable men to be had.”
The early metis of North Dakota, ancestors of the present metis, enjoyed life with true appreciation. They were fond of good dress, and their clothes were made of the finest imported merinos, cashmeres, and broadcloths, bought at the trading posts. The men wore black broadcloth redingotes, long and double-breasted and trimmed with large brass buttons. At the collar was a capuchon or hood, which was never worn but served merely as an adornment. A bright sash about the waist, beaded moccasins, and a beaded tobacco pouch, used much as a French courtier used his snuff box, completed the costume. The women wore the tight basque and flowing skirt, and, in summer as well as winter, a half-dozen gaily colored petticoats, which created quite a dazzling array when the wearer stooped to tie the lace of a beaded moccasin. A black silk kerchief was tied about the head, and over this went a large square of black broadcloth which wrapped about the entire body and served as a cloak.
The metis were, and still are, fond of music and dancing. Their songs came down from their French ancestors or were learned from the mission priests. One favorite was Au clair de la lune (By Moonlight) and another was Marlbrouck s’en va-t-en guerre (Marlborough Goes to War). Square dances, the Red River jig, Pair O’Fours, and Reel O’Cats were favorite dances, and some of them are still performed (W.P.A., North Dakota, p. 237).
CATHOLIC MISSIONS UNDER
THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
ST. BENEDICT’S MISSION, adjacent to the village of White Earth, one of the finest schools in the Indian Service, was established in 1868 by Archbishop John Ireland, at that time a young Army chaplain. The mission was first composed of log buildings, constructed by the Indians to serve as schools and churches. At the same time, the site of the present Calvary Cemetery, where Chief White Cloud is buried, was marked. In 1881 two brick-veneered structures, which now serve as the church and rectory, were erected on the wooded shore of Mission Lake. Supplementing the day school, an orphanage for 30 children was opened in connection with the mission. In 1892 the school was further enlarged by a grant from the Federal Government. This provided for 100 more children, allotting $100 a year from the Indian Tribal Education Fund for each child. Preference is given to orphans, children from broken homes, or those who are not conveniently near a day school. St. Benedict’s farm of 150 acres, with a garden and an orchard, produces most of the required food. This mission represents the first religious and educational effort to benefit the Indians in the surrounding region.
The Chippewa hold an annual festival in White Earth Village...in commemoration of the arrival of their first band of 150 at the reservation in 1868. This program is of unusual interest to visitors, for it includes public councils, or pow-wows, in formal tribal costumes, with speeches, songs, several types of native dances, a sham battle between the Chippewa and Sioux, canoe, foot, and pony races that display the Indian’s remarkable athletic ability, and many games, including lacrosse (W.P.A., Minnesota, p. 447).
HAYS...ST. PAUL’S MISSION..., was founded in 1886 by a Jesuit, Father Frederick Hugo Eberschweiler, who is said to have gained the respect of the Gros Ventre by learning their language more rapidly than any other white visitor. Finding that men from Fort Benton were unwilling to come to the Little Rockies to build his mission because of warfare between the Gros Ventre and the Canadian Bloods, he sought aid in the settlement that later became Landusky; a crew of prospectors responded. The work proceeded swiftly, and early in 1887 Father Eberschweiler, assisted by some Ursuline Sisters, began instruction.
One of the early log houses still stands, but the main building, which contained paintings, used by the priest in teaching the natives, has been destroyed by fire. Two newer buildings are of stone (W.P.A., Montana, p. 248)
Right from Hardin...is ST. XAVIER..., largest settlement on the Crow Reservation. In 1887 Father Prando, a Jesuit Missionary, and two companions founded a new mission here. At first they used their single tent as church, reception room, storehouse, kitchen, and dormitory. In the following year a frame schoolhouse was completed.
One of the leaders of the Crow, who were very restless at the time and eager to fight troops stationed at Fort Custer, was a medicine man who brandished a rusty saber when proclaiming his ability to exterminate every paleface. One evening three Ursuline nuns accompanied by a priest arrived at the mission and shortly afterward the Indians fired several shots into the agency buildings. The next morning the four proceeded to the mission school but were not molested. A Crow scout ended the incipient rebellion a few days later by shooting the medicine man (W.P.A., Montana, p. 260).
...STEPHAN, community center for the area and home of the IMMACULATE CONCEPTION MISSION (Catholic). The postoffice takes its name from Msgr. J.A. Stephan, director of the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions. In 1886, the government granted 160 acres for a Catholic mission school and secular priests built a small frame building to serve as a school and dwelling. The next year Pius Boehm, a Benedictine monk, arrived with funds to start building a 2 1/2 story school. Two Benedictine nuns assumed charge (W.P.A., South Dakota, p. 250).
Left from Omak, a dirt road climbs a long grade...to ST. MARY’S MISSION, a group of buildings including a white-painted Roman Catholic Church, a convent, a boy’s school, and a hospital. ...The mission was founded in 1889 by Father Etienne de Rouge, who devoted his personal fortune, and what he was able to solicit from contributors throughout the world, to these sons and daughters of the wilderness. The kindly old French Jesuit held tremendous sway over the tribesmen and Christians of the vicinity. Rebellious Chief Joseph and Chief Moses [of the Nez Perces] attended his services, though they seemed to doubt their fitness for the heavenly destiny painted by the priest. Many deeds of violence were prevented by Father De Rouge’s intervention (W.P.A., Washington, p. 455).
The sturdy tan-sandstone buildings of ST. STEPHEN’S MISSION,..., are surrounded by flower, fruit, and vegetable gardens. The school, in charge of four Jesuit Fathers and eight Franciscan Sisters, combines the work of the eight grammar grades with vocational training...
The mission works solely with the Arapaho, who were ‘temporarily’ domiciled on the Shoshone Reservation in 1876. Until 1884, this tribe without a country was forgotten in the campaign to educate Indians; then the Government opened a boarding school for its young people. Bishop O’Connor of Omaha raised funds to furnish the building and provided the teachers. Father John Jutz of Buffalo, New York, who was placed in charge, bought a pony, a saddle, and a tent, loaded his belongings on a wagon, and, accompanied by Father Moriarity of Lander, entered Arapaho Country, without knowledge of his charges or their language. In the triangle formed by the confluence of the Wind and Little Wind Rivers, he pitched his tent and set up a temporary altar, where he said Mass the next morning, with only Chief Black Coal, his two wives, and his children present. When a letter from Father Jutz to Bishop O’Connor, describing his work, appeared in a newspaper, Miss Katherine Drexel of Philadelphia gave $5000 for an Arapaho mission (W.P.A., Wyoming, p. 391).
BLACK ELK’S LAST TESTAMENT
Holy Rosary Mission
Pine Ridge, S. Dak.
January 26, 1934
BLACK ELK SPEAKS AGAIN—THE FINAL SPEECH
I shake hands with my white friends. Listen! I will speak words of truth. I told about the people’s ways of long ago and some of this a white man put in a book but he did not tell about current ways. Therefore I will speak again, a final speech.
Now I am an old man. I called my priest to pray for me and so he gave me Extreme Unction and Holy Eucharist. Therefore I will tell you the truth. Listen my friends!
For the last thirty years I have lived very differently from what the white man told about me. I am a believer. The Catholic priest Short Father baptized me thirty years ago. From then on they have called me Nick Black Elk. Very many of the Indians know me. Now I have converted and live in the true faith of God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Accordingly, I say in my own Sioux Indian language, “Our Father, who art in heaven, hallowed be thy name,” as Christ taught us and instructed us to say. I say the Apostle’s Creed and I believe it all.
I believe in the Seven Sacraments of the Catholic Church. I have now received six of these: Baptism, Confirmation, Penance, Holy Eucharist, Holy Matrimony, and Extreme Unction.
For very many years I went with several priests to fight for Christ among my people. For about twenty years I helped the priests and I was a catechist in several communities. So I think I know more about the Catholic religion than many white men.
For eight years I participated in the retreat for catechists and from this I learned a great deal about the faith. I am able to explain my faith. From my faith I know Who I believe in so my work is not in vain.
All of my family is baptized. All my children and grandchildren belong to the Catholic Church and I am glad of that and I wish very much that they will always follow the holy road.
I know what St. Peter has to say to those men who forsake the holy commandments. My white friends should read carefully 2 Peter 2:20-22. I send my people on the straight road that Christ’s church has taught us about. While I live I will never fall from faith in Christ.
Thirty years ago I knew little about the one we call God. At that time I was a very good dancer. In England I danced before our Grandmother, Queen Victoria. At that time I gave medicines to the sick. Perhaps I was proud, I considered myself brave and I considered myself to be a good Indian, but now I think I am better.
St. Paul also became better after his conversion. I know that the Catholic religion is good, better than the Sun dance or the Ghost dance. Long ago the Indians performed such dances only for glory. They cut themselves and caused the blood to flow. But for the sake of sin Christ was nailed on the cross to take our sins away. The Indian religion of long ago did not benefit mankind. The medicine men sought only glory and presents from their curing. Christ commanded us to be humble and He taught us to stop sin. The Indian medicine men did not stop sin. Now I despise sin. And I want to go straight in the righteous way that the Catholics teach us so my soul will reach heaven. This is the way I wish it to be. With a good heart I shake hands with all of you.
(signed) Nick Black Elk
Lucy Looks Twice
Joseph A. Zimmerman, S.J.
(Wanblee Wankatuya [High Eagle])
(Raymond De Maillee, The Sixth Grandfather, pp. 59-61).
CATHOLIC IMMIGRANT COLONIES AND CUSTOMS
About 1880, along with renewed German migration, new groups began to pour into Ohio. The State was growing up. It was no longer a virgin territory to draw farmers and settlers in search of fertile land. It was still the haven of persecuted foreign minorities, but, what was much more important, it had hungry industries, notably steel and shipping, demanding more and more unskilled workers. Scandinavians, Slavs, Magyars, and Italians flooded into Ohio. The Little Italies and Little Hungaries became reservoirs of unskilled labor for the steel industry. In Cleveland and other large cities, they built banks, published newspapers, organized churches, and became active in local government.
These new Ohioans differed from the older residents in culture, physical appearance, language, and work habits. The melting pot seethed slowly. Cleveland owes it unintegrated urban personality to the fact that its southern and central European inhabitants are scarcely assimilated. The Russians and Greeks go to their Orthodox churches; the Czechs celebrate their Day of Three Iron men on May 15. Rumanian singers go from door to door on Christmas Eve, while the Poles bake wafers (oplatki) to give friends during the Christmas season. Yugoslavians decorate their houses with ivy and scatter straw on the floor to symbolize Christ’s birth in a manger. On August 14-16, Cleveland Italians hold the Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin. Hundreds of white-clad little girls lead an elaborate procession and strew flowers before the float that bears the statue of the Virgin. Like customs persist among these people in all the large cities of the State.
At various places in the State, the people from central and southern Europe have carried over into an Ohio environment their own distinctive cultures. At Taborville, near Cleveland, for example, Czech families have a summer camp which is native in the architecture of its houses and the life of its residents. Ohio Czechs express congratulations and condolences through paid advertising in Czech; when a well-known young man and woman marry, a whole page of advertising is often bought by well-wishers. At the public reception after the ceremony, all male adults are expected to dance with the bride and to donate articles for the new household.
Among Ohio’s Slovenian families death is the signal for all mirrors in the home to be turned to the wall so that the soul of the dead cannot see itself. Windows are kept closed, for it is believed that the soul stays near the home for several hours before leaving to pay a 40-day visit to the scenes of its earthly life. Should the deceased have done injustice or neglected his duties while alive, his soul tries to right the wrongs during this period. Friends and relatives attending the wake are cautioned not to gamble lest the soul be offended. Some Slovenians put a vessel of water outside the door of the death room, so that the reaper will wash his scythe on his way out and do his business elsewhere for at least a year.
The Slovaks in Guernsey County throw a hood over a new-born baby’s head. This custom is immemorial with them; perhaps its purpose is to foster the growth of a good head of hair. Among the Croatians in northern Ohio female relatives carry hard-boiled eggs, garnished with sheaves of wheat, to young childless married women. The wife eats the eggs and waits anxiously for signs of child; if nothing happens, the husband is treated to eggs decorated with pictures of roosters (W.P.A., Ohio, p. 81).
All the immigrants faced difficult conditions even while trying to maintain their Faith and traditions:
The immigrants of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were motivated more by economic than political considerations. Leaving their homelands, where life had been hard and crude, they converged on the growing commercial and industrial cities of Newark, Jersey City, Paterson, Passaic, New Brunswick, Trenton, and Camden. They established communities bordering on the very shadows of the factories, much as their peasant ancestors clustered beneath the walls of the feudal manor. Their economic position was modestly secure, but reports of their prosperity were fantastically exaggerated by steamship agents in order to bring thousands more from the Old World.
Poles began to come to New Jersey in large numbers in 1870. In Hudson County alone they now number 23,000, most of them being employed as heavy labor in the factories and oil refineries of Jersey City and Bayonne. More than 5000 Polish immigrants live in Newark, where they are distributed among a variety of industries.
Polish women assume a large part of their families’ economic burden. In Jersey City a large laundry employs nearly 1,000 Polish women, and in the woolen mills of Passaic they number at least 5,000. Bad housing, fatigue, and poverty have caused a certain physical deteriorate among these women, who in their native land are extremely handsome. The Poles are deeply religious, and in the Greek and Roman Catholic churches they find their chief opportunity for artistic expression. Like the Germans, the Poles are a musical people, and singing societies and orchestras are usually a feature of their many fraternal and national organizations.
Residents of Italian stock in New Jersey constitute more than 10 percent of the total of Italian stock in the United States. Late nineteenth century arrivals for the most part, the Italians are found in every county and in every industrial center. Some have entered agriculture, notably in settlements near Vineland and Hammonton and generally throughout south New Jersey. The cultivation of peppers, artichokes, and eggplants is an Italian importation. In Chatham and Madison many Italians are employed in greenhouses.
But the majority of Italians are found in factory and construction work. In Paterson, national center of the silk-dyeing industry, more than 10,000 work in the dye houses. They are also numerous in the silk mills. Shrewd in business and real estate investments, the Italians are also among the most substantial members of the trade union movement. In Passaic County, they are the backbone of one of the Nation’s largest local unions, Dyer’s Local 1733.
Czecho-Slovakians are numerous in the Passaic County textile region. Elizabeth has a number of Lithuanians. Hungarians, concentrated in and around New Brunswick and Perth Amboy, account for more than 12 percent of all Hungarians in the United States. They were the nucleus for the town of Roebling, one of the few company towns in New Jersey (W.P.A., New Jersey, pp. 121-122).
Yet it was not only the industrial areas of the Northeast which attracted immigrants; Catholics played an important part in the settling of the West. Mining towns attracted large numbers to Colorado, Arizona, Nevada, and Utah (where in fact, the Catholic Slavs and Italians formed the only significant non-Mormon group in the State) and Wyoming:
Many Polish families, who immigrated to the Sheridan Valley in the 1890s and early 1900s to develop the coal mines, have moved to Sheridan in recent years. They have entered enthusiastically into the life of the community and are leaders in civic musical organizations. Their native folk customs are preserved in periodic dances, privately sponsored, patterned after Old-World festivals. Many of the dances originally had religious or nationalistic significance, but in Sheridan their main purpose is to provide diversion and recreation. The costumes worn on these occasions are modeled after Polish native dress. Men wear leather moccasins, leggings, bright-colored knee breeches, and shirts with long full sleeves. Women are charming in their white veils, numerous petticoats, blouses, flare skirts, and checkered aprons. The beer is free. The music is joyous and brassy (W.P.A., Wyoming, p. 207).
So too with North Dakota:
WILTON..., named for Wilton, Maine, is on the McLean-Burleigh County line and is the center of a Ukrainian settlement. These people came from Galicia, a province of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire, and found work in the lignite mines which at the time were just opening here. One group arrived in 1897 and a second two years later. Many old customs are preserved, including folk dances performed in picturesque, brightly colored costumes by both old and young people. The Ukrainians are fond of flowers and their homes usually have beautiful gardens, in which they can be seen working in the early hours of summer days (W.P.A., North Dakota, p. 204).
The Great West also welcomed two Catholic nationalities not found in the East. The first were the Germans from Russia, the so-called Volga Deutsch. Settled in the fertile steppes of Russia in 1762 by Catherine the Great, the Empress had conceded various privileges to them in order to stimulate the production of wheat in an area up until then devastated by the raids of Turks and Tartars. In the United States they attempted to preserve their way of life:
German-Russians who came to Kansas from the lower Volga region [during the early 1870s], and settled on the rolling plains country of Rush and Ellis Counties, were chiefly Roman Catholics. They established their own villages and, with much labor and sacrifice, erected large stone churches with colored windows and carved interiors, which rise from the prairie, their spires visible for miles. The settlers gave their best to the church, even depriving their families of necessities to do so (W.P.A., Kansas, p. 114).
VICTORIA..., is a German-Russian community built to resemble a native Russian village. Houses with sharply peaked roofs are flush with the street. Heavy, solid-wood shutters cover the windows and many of the structures have only a back door, which opens onto a rectangular court. In Russia, peasants working on their distant farms came into their village homes only for weekends to trade and attend church; this type of building protected their homes from raids of the wild, roving Kirghis tribes. The persistence of this architecture in Kansas is attributed to a similar fear of Indians.
Victoria is the center of German-Russian settlements totaling approximately 50,000 persons in Russell, Ellis, Trego, and Rush Counties. Although their neighbors refer to these people as Russians, or “Rooshans,” they are of pure German blood, their ancestors having migrated to Russia as did the Mennonites upon the invitation of Catherine the Great in the 1760’s. Slightly more than a century later, their descendants came to America when a successor of Catherine revoked the privileges they had enjoyed under her rule.
Many attend several or all of the masses on Sundays as well as the afternoon services, vespers, and benediction. Feast and holy days are celebrated with special services. On the feast of Corpus Christi every man, woman, and child takes part in a procession that, weather permitting, winds about the countryside, making a circuit of nearby villages. The marchers recite the rosary and litanies while members of the choir sing Latin and German hymns.
During divine services the conduct of even the younger children is very devout. Occasionally worshippers pray with outstretched arms symbolizing the crucified Saviour. Special prayers, often attended by members of the entire community, are offered for the repose of the souls of the dead; and children are usually baptized immediately after birth (W.P.A., Kansas, pp. 360-361).
These German-Russians were not confined to Kansas, however, but spread throughout the prairie States: Nebraska (where they were joined by many Czechs), the Dakotas, Colorado, Montana, and Wyoming. But in every place they settled they lived as in Victoria, and have continued as bastions of the Faith in all those places until our own day. In Russia, they were formed into a Soviet Republic under Stalin, and then banished to Siberia after the German invasion in World War II. Since the fall of Communism, they have begun to return from Russian Asia to their old homes. Interestingly enough, the newly appointed Apostolic Administrator of Siberia is a Volga German, and found several distant cousins while visiting North Dakota on a recent trip.
While much of the West was taken up with Cattle raising (itself originally begun by Spanish as we have seen) sheep-herding attracted yet another Catholic ethnic group to the West—the Basques:
JORDAN VALLEY..., a Basque settlement, keeps its old world atmosphere. According to one account, a Basque sea captain came to San Francisco in the 1870’s and found his way to Winnemucca by the new railroad. He remained in the grazing section, made his fortune, and then returned to Spain to spread the tidings of a great sheep country in the New World. Another story is that ambitious young men came from the Basque country by way of Ellis Island and drifted across the continent in search of a promised land which they found in this region adapted to a people that have loved liberty and solitude for centuries.
Among the early Basque settlers of the Jordan Creek Valley was Augustine B. Azcuenaga, who arrived about 1880 and took up sheep raising on a large scale.
The Basque houses of Jordan Valley have brightly painted rooms and are built of native stone in the Pyrenean manner to insure warmth in winter and coolness in summer. Huge piles of sagebrush in the dooryards are reminders that wood is scarce.
Names of the residents add to the feeling that one is very remote from all things American. Among them are Carmen Guerricagoitia, Thomas Corta, Pilar Eisaguirre, Alfonso Acordogoitia, Emilia Chertudi, Jesus Arristola, Damaso Cortabitarte, the pronunciation of which few persons attempt.
As descendants of a people that inhabited Spain before the Celts, the Basques claim to be the oldest unmixed race in Europe. The typical Basque has a remarkably clear skin, sparkling dark or blue eyes, and a warm smile. The women are noted for their dark beauty, which is heightened by the bright colors of their native dress and the graceful lace mantillas, intriguingly draped over high combs in the Spanish fashion.
The Basque herder carries his blanket roll on his back; slung at his side is his desert water bag, and in his hand his staff. During summer, distant fires on the hills tell of his solitary watch. Perhaps for many weeks no one comes near him but the camp tender, who brings supplies from the home ranch on the back of a burro.
Away from their work the Basques are a gay people, dancing, playing the guitar, accordion, or harp; they are likely to gather around the plaza in pastimes that bring the color of Old Spain into the wilderness. Among their folk dances are the arreska, the fandango, and the farrandole. Their primitive dances, some of which were taken over by the Romans, are related to the Egyptian ritual. Among them are the vintage dance, the sword dance, and the weaving dance, from which we take our maypole dance...
The pioneer generation of Oregon has kept alive these racial traditions, engaging in their old festivities on such occasions as their three important feast days—Christmas, New Year’s, and Three Kings’ Day. This latter is observed on January 6, a festival honoring the eastern Kings who visited the Christ Child. In holiday mood, while the musicians play their native instruments, the others stand in a circle with their hands on one another’s shoulders and sing. Plaintive Spanish songs, melodious Basque airs, and old French folk songs echo over the rimrock...(W.P.A., Oregon, pp. 461-462).
The Basque Sheepherders were and are to be found throughout the Great Basin: in Washington and Oregon, Nevada, Utah, and Idaho. This author encountered a lonely Basque shepherd on the shores of Mono Lake in North Carntral California. The Basque shepherd with his dog and flock is as much a part of the lore of the Old West as the Cattleman, the small sod-farmer, or the outlaw.
But Catholics, like other pioneers, had to put up with Indian raids, with famine, and with illness. Unlike their neighbors, however, they had spiritual resources, as this story of a French-Canadian town in South Dakota shows:
A large BLACK CROSS in the cemetery dates back to 1877 when grasshoppers ravaged the State. A few old-timers in the community still remember this devastating plague that swept the territory, leaving in its wake stark desolation, blighted hopes, and starvation. There were few inhabitants, then, but this part of the Territory was more thickly settled than other sections. Coming in hordes so dense that the sky was darkened and the sun nearly obscured, the grasshoppers devoured the scanty crops, already stunted by drought.
Frenzied with grief, the settlers, after exhausting all human efforts to rid themselves of the grasshoppers, decided to ask Divine aid. The pastor of the Catholic church announced at Mass that a retreat was to take place the next day. Messages were dispatched as quickly as possible to all the people of the country and community. Protestants and Catholics alike came to the church the next morning. Many of them were barefoot.
The priest carried a cross and led the procession that formed two m. S. of town. From here the group marched N. 6 m., then proceeded from E. to W. in the form of a cross. At each of the four points they placed a simple cross, and in the cemetery at Jefferson, a larger one. The ceremonies connected with the event were solemn, men, women, and children joining in prayer. Not long after the event great heaps of dead grasshoppers were found along the Sioux and Missouri rivers (W.P.A., South Dakota, p. 332).
As we have seen, the settlement of the West was due in no small part to the railroads, which also proliferated in the South during this era. Railroad officials, however they might exploit both their employees and the farmers whose crops they transported to market, needed settlers along their routes. The farmers were essential, after all, no matter how they might cheat them. Moreover, as a source of both labor and passengers, foreign immigrants were required if the Railroads were to be profitable. So in both West and South they began to induce Catholic Europeans to take up land along their routes. It was thus in Wisconsin:
When the [Wisconsin Central] railroad first hewed its way through this region towards Ashland, it needed cheap labor for the task; logging companies at the same time were seeking buyers for stripped timberlands. Both railroad and lumber companies sought workers and settlers on the docks of New York and among the peasants of Europe; they sent out agents and thousands of pamphlets urging poor people to come to Wisconsin. They advertised that “the country along the Wisconsin Central railroad possesses all the advantages necessary to make it easy for immigrants, even those without means”; that crops could be obtained by merely harrowing; that by seasonal work in northern lumber camps the new settler could earn enough money to buy a farm.
The railroad company provided houses in which 75 to 100 persons were accommodated free of charge for two weeks. The settlers attracted were largely Bavarians and Bohemians. Mail boxes along the highway bear such names as Kolnick, Valiga, Yborsky, indicating the Bohemian ancestry of those who live in the small houses back among the trees (W.P.A., Wisconsin, p. 396).
Things were similar in Arkansas, although there the Railroads were not so directly involved in attracting settlers; rather, they cooperated with organizers of colonies:
When the railroads came, they often co-operated with the Roman Catholic Church in settling groups of European-born immigrants along their routes. Out of such a collaboration, begun in 1878, grew the Subiaco Abbey and Seminary. Around this Benedictine institution, a good many families of German and Austrian descent still reside. The church founded other German communities at Pocahantas, Jonesboro, and Altus. The Roman Catholic Polish colony at Marche was founded in 1878 by North Little Rock railroad-shop workers. In 1894 a number of Italians settled at Sunnyside, near Lake Chicot; some of these, led to Washington County by Father Pietro Bandini, established the flourishing settlement of Tontitown and introduced grape cultivation in the State (W.P.A., Arkansas, p. 86).
The stories the W.P.A. Guide tells of some of these places are as inspiring in their way as the stories of colonies we looked at in earlier chapters. Again, it is such folk, lay and clerical alike, whom we ought to admire as heroes and founders of Catholic America. Let us revere their names, those brave colonists:
MARCHE,...a Polish community founded by Count Timothy von Choinski and his wife in 1878. The titled pair, who had emigrated to America, determined to establish a community for their countrymen where they might struggle together with the strange language and strange occupations. About 300 families settled, cleared land, and built cabins, though all did not remain. Today (1941) Marché is one of the few settlements in Arkansas retaining European customs and language. All social life centers around the church built on Jasna Gora (Sky-blue Mountain), but weddings, followed by enormous feasts, are the most important occasions (W.P.A., Arkansas, p. 274).
The first Benedictines came to Subiaco from St. Meinrad’s Abbey in Indiana; St. Meinrad’s had been established by members of the order from Switzerland. The Little Rock and Fort Smith Railroad was anxious to secure settlers along its line and offered the order part of its State-granted land and funds for buildings. The expectation was that German immigrants would follow the church. Three monks arrived at the site in 1878, and for their first service used an unhinged cabin door as an altar table. The mission became a priory the following year, and an abbey in 1892. A theological school was opened in 1887. Meanwhile, the anticipated colony had begun to flourish in the community, and many of the descendants of German settlers still live around Subiaco (W.P.A., Arkansas, pp. 286-287).
TONTITOWN..., named for Henry de Tonti (c. 1660-1704), Italian lieutenant of the explorer La Salle and founder of Arkansas Post, is the nucleus of an Italian settlement responsible for the introduction of grape-growing in northwest Arkansas. In 1897, a priest named Pietro Bandini, sent from Italy to investigate the condition of Italian emigrants to America, found a half-starved, malaria ridden colony of his people on Lake Chicot in the cotton country of southeast Arkansas. He purchased 1,000 acres of rolling land in Washington County and moved 35 families there to live on wild rabbits while they cleared the land. Planting of grape slips on the congenial Washington County slopes began immediately, and the members of Father Bandini’s group cultivated vineyards and made wine for a quarter of a century before neighboring farmers began to think seriously of grapes as a cash crop (W.P.A., Arkansas, pp. 310-311).
Such colonies were launched in Alabama:
CULLMAN was settled by German immigrants from the Rhineland, led by John Cullman, who bought a tract of land for colonizing in 1872 (W.P.A. Guide, p. 243).
DAPHNE In 1888 Alessandro Mastro-Valerio established an Italian colony for agrarian immigrants. Originally they planned to cultivate extensive vineyards, but with the coming of prohibition they took up truck gardening and citrus fruits. Valerio’s contribution to the welfare of his fellow countrymen won recognition from the Italian government (W.P.A. Guide, p. 257).
And in Michigan:
POSEN..., a village grouped around St. Casimir’s Roman Catholic Church and school, is at the center of a Polish farming district. Described by Konrad Bercovici in his book On New Shores, as a typical Polish settlement in the United States, its people still cling to some of the customs of their homeland. The village was settled about 1870, when a few hundred Polish immigrants were brought here by lumber companies. The timber was soon exhausted, and the Poles bought the cut-over land for 6$ to 10$ an acre and cleared it for farming. Preserving intact its Polish culture, the colony for years was the delight of ethnologists. Up to about the period of the first World War the everyday attire of the women was the national costume of Poland. Adjoining the church is a parochial school, the Skola Kazimierska. The language spoken is Polish, and all but one of the Sunday church services is in that tongue.
Fondness for social life is characteristic of the Polish people, and such events as marriages and christenings are celebrated in Posen in the traditional manner. Dinner for the wedding is provided by the father of the bride; the father of the groom supplies the wine and the musicians. Each male guest contributes to the bride’s dowry in the ceremony of “breaking the plate”: A china plate is placed on a table in the room where the general dancing is in progress; money is thrown on the plate by the guests, and the bride dances with each donor for a specified time; when silver is thrown hard enough to break the plate, the bride dances twice with the thrower. Marriage festivals often continue three days and three nights (W.P.A., Michigan, p. 484).
Nor was Oregon left out: “VERBOORT..., is a Dutch colony, whose settlers came from Wisconsin in 1875 under John Verboort. Reverend William A. Verboort, one of his sons, founded the Verboort Catholic church, which, as the colony spread, established missions at Hillsboro, Cornelius, Forest Grove, and Roy, all of which became self-supporting parishes” (W.P.A., Oregon, p. 481). General John J. O’Neill founded three Irish Catholic colonies in Nebraska after 1874: O’Neill, Atkinson, and Greeley County. These Irish came from Massachusetts and Pennsylvania. Elsewhere than Arkansas, Catholic colonies of Germans were established. In Tennessee, “LORETTO,..., was founded in 1872 by the German Catholic Homestead Association of Cincinnati, which in 1870 purchased 15,000 acres of land in this county and divided it into 160-acre farms. The settlers converted the once barren acres into profitable truck and fruit-producing farms. Loretto has a convent, a church, and a parochial school. ST. JOSEPH, ..., was also founded by German Catholics. The town lies in a cotton-growing section” (W.P.A., Tennessee, p. 391).
As always, Texas continued to attract settlers, and numbers of these were German Catholics also:
MUENSTER, ... , is a modern, neat town in the center of a pioneer German colonization project, and has retained its racial integrity. ...Founded in 1889 by two brothers, Muenster was named for a city in their fatherland. First settlers were all Roman Catholics, and few of other faiths reside here today. Dominating Muenster is SACRED HEART ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH..., near the center of the town. The 70-foot steeple is visible from some distance, and on quiet days the bells of the carillon are audible for five miles. This church, said to be one of the purest examples of Gothic architecture in Texas, was built in 1896-1897. It is in the shape of a cross, surmounted by a high-pitched roof. The stained-glass windows are set in pointed arches of true Gothic type (W.P.A., Texas, p. 383).
Broad hills and wide valleys encircle WINDHORST, ... , a spotless little town of rock houses perched around a hill. From the hilltop a Roman Catholic church building lifts a tall clock tower, visible for miles. This community is composed of German immigrants who founded a town here in 1891 (W.P.A., Texas, p. 441).
There even arrived in America after the Civil War bands of Irish Itinerants, those gypsy-like folk who in Ireland lead a roving life, speaking a strange Gaelic all their own. For some reason, their American branch chose Nashville as a center:
By the underpass of the Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis Ry., 3.5 M., the camp site of the Irish Nomads. In the last week of April this roving clan of horse traders gathers in Nashville to attend the annual burial services of members who have died during the year. Between two and three thousands of them pitch their tents and park their trailers in the open field. Though they are often mistaken for Gypsies, these people are of pure Irish stock, devout Roman Catholics, and bear such names as Costello, Sherlock, and Gorman.
The clan stems from four families of horse traders who came to the United States in 1875. They have always confined their trading to the South. Today they travel about the rural sections in cars and trucks, stopping frequently to buy horses and mules. The buying is not restricted to fine work animals. Farmers know that the Nomads will take a sick mule or an overworked horse, if it is not too old. Skilled for generations in doctoring ailing horses, they are remarkably successful in salvaging such animals. At New Orleans and Atlanta the clan maintains depots on a communal basis, in which the animals are collected and sold at auction. A large part of the trade is with foreign markets. Much of the mountain artillery of the Italian army was carried into the hills of Ethiopia on the backs of mules bought for the Italian Government by the Irish Nomads.
The burial place for those who live east of the Alleghenies is Atlanta; for those who live West, Nashville. On the first of May, Mass for the dead is said at St. Patrick’s church. Burial is at Mt. Calvary cemetery, on the Lebanon Rd. (W.P.A., Tennessee, pp. 397-398).
THE LUCERNE MEMORIAL
MOST HOLY FATHER,
The presidents, secretaries general, and delegates of the societies under the protection of the Holy Archangel Raphael for the protection of emigrants, encouraged by the benevolence which Your Holiness has shown them, assembled on December 9 of last year at an international conference in Lucerne to deliberate upon means best suited to serve the spiritual and material well-being of their Catholic compatriots who have emigrated to America, the number of which is in excess of 400,000 yearly.
The above mentioned take the liberty to place before Your Holiness, with deepest respect, the fact that the numerous emigrants constitute a great strength, and could co-operate eminently in the expansion of the Catholic Church in the several states of America. In this way they could contribute to the moral stature of their new homeland, as well as to the stimulation of religious consciousness in the old European fatherlands.
Only the true Church, of which Your Holiness is the highest shepherd, can obtain these happy results because it is the true source of all progress and civilization.
But in order that European Catholics, in their adopted country, preserve and transmit to their children their faith and its inherent benefits, the undersigned have the honor to submit to Your Holiness the conditions, which in the light of experience and the nature of things, appear to be indispensable for that purpose in the countries of immigration. The losses which the Church has suffered in the United States of America number more than ten million souls.
1. It seems necessary to unite the emigrant groups of each nationality in separate parishes, congregations, or missions, whenever their numbers make such a practice possible.
2. It seems necessary to entrust the administration of these parishes to priests of the same nationality to which the faithful belong. The sweetest and dearest memories of their homeland would be recalled every minute, and they would love all the more the holy Church which procures these benefits for them.
3. In areas settled by emigrants of several nationalities who are not numerous enough to organize separate national parishes, it is desirable as far as possible, that a pastor be chosen to guide them who understands the diverse languages of these groups. This priest should be strictly obliged to give catechetical instruction to each of the groups in their own language.
4. It will be especially necessary to establish parochial schools wherever Christian public schools are not available, and these schools should be separate, as far as possible, for each nationality.
The curriculum of these schools should always include the mother tongue as well as the language and history of the adopted country.
5. It seems necessary to grant to priests devoting themselves to the emigrants all rights, privileges, and prerogatives enjoyed by the priests of the country. This arrangement, which is only just, would have the result that zealous, pious, and apostolic priests of all nationalities will be attracted to immigrant work.
6. It seems desirable to establish and encourage societies of various kinds, confraternities, charitable organizations, mutual aid and protective associations, etc. By these means Catholics would be systematically organized and saved from the dangerous sect of the Freemasons and organizations affiliated with it.
7. It seems very desirable that the Catholics of each nationality, wherever it is deemed possible, have in the episcopacy of the country where they immigrate, several bishops who are of the same origin. It seems that in this way the organization of the Church would be perfect, for in the assemblies of the bishops, every immigrant race would be represented, and its interests and needs would be protected.
8. Finally the undersigned wish to point out that for the attainment of the objectives which they have enumerated, it would be very desirable, and this they vigorously urge, that the Holy See foster and protect in the emigration countries: (a) special seminaries and apostolic schools for training missionaries for emigrants; (b) St. Raphael Societies for the protection of emigrants, and that it recommend to the Most Rev. Bishops that they establish such societies in the emigration countries where they do not yet exist, and that the Holy See place them under the protection of a Cardinal Protector.
The undersigned hope for the happiest and most immediate results from this organization and these measures. Emigration missionaries trained under the direction of a distinguished Italian Bishop have already gone to America. Others, members of neighboring nations, are waiting, before entering, upon their important and holy calling, for the Supreme Shepherd of the Church, by a degree of his wisdom, to guarantee the free exercise of their mission. If the Holy See will lend its indispensable co-operation, wonderful results should result. The poor emigrants will find on American soil their priests, their parishes, their schools, their societies, their language, and thus cannot fail to extend the boundaries of the Kingdom of Jesus Christ on earth.
POPE BENEDICT XV’S PEACE PLAN
1. SUBSTITUTION OF THE "MORAL FORCE OF RIGHT" FOR THE LAW OF MATERIAL FORCE.
First of all, the fundamental point must be that the moral force of right shall be substituted for the material force of arms.
2. A SIMULTANEOUS AND RECIPROCAL DECREASE OF ARMAMENTS.
Thence must follow a just agreement of all for the simultaneous and reciprocal diminution of armaments, in accordance with rules and guarantees to be established hereafter, in a measure sufficient and necessary for the maintenance of public order in each State.
3. INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION
Next, as a substitute for armies, the institution of arbitration, with its high peace-making function, subject to regulations to be agreed on and sanctions to be determined against the State which should refuse either to submit international questions to arbitration or accept its decision.
4. TRUE FREEDOM AND COMMUNITY OF THE SEAS
Once the supremacy of right is thus established, let all obstacles to the free intercourse of people be swept aside, in assuring, by means of rules, to be fixed in the same way, the true liberty and common rights over the sea, which on the one hand would eliminate numerous sources of conflict, and on the other, would open to all new sources of prosperity and progress.
5. RECIPROCAL RENUNCIATION OF WAR INDEMNITIES.
As to the damage to be made good and the cost of the war, We see no other way of solving the question but to lay down, as a general principle, an entire and reciprocal condonation, justified, moreover, by the immense benefits which will accrue from disarmament—the more so as the continuation of such carnage solely for economic reasons would be inconceivable. If in certain cases there are, on the other hand, particular reasons, let them be weighed justly and equitably.
6. EVACUATION AND RESTORATION OF ALL OCCUPIED TERRITORIES.
But these peaceful agreements, with the immense advantages which flow from them, are not possible without the reciprocal restitution of territories at the moment occupied—consequently, on the part of Germany, a total evacuation of Belgium, with a guarantee of her complete political, military, and economic independence, as against any other power whatever; similar evacuation of French territory; on the part of other belligerent powers a similar restitution of the German colonies.
7. AN EXAMINATION "IN A CONCILIATORY SPIRIT" OF RIVAL TERRITORIAL CLAIMS.
As regards territorial questions—as, for instance those pending between Italy and Austria, and between Germany and France—there is ground for hope that in view of the immense advantages of a permanent peace with disarmament, the disputants would feel disposed to examine them in a conciliatory spirit, giving due weight, within the limits of justice and feasibility, as We have said previously, to the aspirations of the populations, and, on occasion, bringing their particular interests into harmony with the general welfare of the great community of mankind.
The same spirit of equity and justice must direct the examination of the remaining territorial and political questions, and particularly those which concern Armenia, the Balkan States, and the territories which form part of the former kingdom of Poland, which in particular, by reason of her noble historical traditions and the sufferings endured especially during the present war, has a just claim on the sympathies of all nations.
WILSON’S 14 POINTS
I. Open covenants openly arrived at.
II.Freedom of the seas.
III. Removal of economic barriers.
IV. Reduction of armaments.
V. In the adjustment of colonial claims the interests of the subject populations must be considered equally with those of the colonizers.
VI. All conquered territory in Belgium, France, and Russia must be restored.
VIII. The need to right the wrong done by the seizure of Alsace and Lorraine in 1870.
IX. The frontiers of Italy to be adjusted according to “clearly recognizable rights of nationality.”
X. The national minorities of Austria-Hungary to have the freest opportunity of national development.
XI. Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro to be evacuated and restored.
XII. Free passage of the Dardanelles and autonomy and security for the subject peoples of the Turkish Empire.
XIII. An independent Poland.
XIV. A general association of nations formed under special covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.”
CHARLES I OF AUSTRIA-HUNGARY—
EMPEROR AND SAINT?
Had the allies, on the insistence of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, not insisted on the breakup of the Empire and the deposition of the Habsburgs, the history of the world would doubtless have been much happier: at least, Hitler would have been much less likely to become such a force, and it is unlikely the Communists would have gone into Central Europe. Charles was a consummate statesman, of proven bravery in wartime. Further, he was committed to a just order for all the peoples in his care. Moreover, he was a faithful and devoted practitioner of his family's devotions (the Rosary, novenas, scripture readings, catechism, daily Mass, and the famed Pietas Austriaca of the Habsburgs: devotion to the Blessed Sacrament, the Holy Cross, the Immaculate Conception, and Corpus Christi).
With the end of the war came deposition and exile for Charles, his Empress, Zita (who died in 1989), and their large family. After two attempts to retake the throne of Hungary they were sent to Funchal in the Madeira Islands. In the fog and damp of their new home, the Emperor quickly sickened and died. But miracles and healings began to occur at his tomb in Funchal, and in 1949 the cause of his beatification was introduced at Rome. In 1972 his tomb was opened (in the presence of Cardinal Mindzenty), and his body found to be incorrupt.
Why ought he to be canonized? We will let Gary Potter in his book In Reaction (pp. 71-73) tell us:
First, he was a champion of peace and reconciliation. His statesmanship in seeking an honorable peace to end World War I provides a model for political leaders faced today with the nuclear and arms races. His deathbed forgiveness of his enemies, particularly the Masons, challenges the many forms of hatred that abound today. His example is instructive to the public as well as to leaders.
Second, he was a champion of social justice. Influenced by Pope Leo XIII's Rerum novarum, he established a Ministry of Social Welfare to implement the Church's social doctrine. His personal commitment to social justice is shown by his use of his carriages and coaches to transport coal to the poor during the war. (Has anyone ever heard of heads of state or government in Washington, London, or Moscow using their limousines to bring help to the poor?) His implementation of the papal social encyclicals sets an example for public officials looking to solve to-day's problems.
Third, he was a champion of Austro-Slavonic unity and minority ethnic rights. Foreseeing Russian domination of the smaller Slavonic and other ethnic nations sandwiched between the Russian and Prussian Empires, Charles strove to transform his own centralised Empire into a confederation of individual ethnic nations, each having internal autonomy, but with their security and other benefits provided by a united defence, a common market, economic and financial union and foreign policy. Had he succeeded, both Hitler and Stalin would have been blocked. What he tried to do still makes geopolitical and economic good sense, if the Captive Nations of Europe ever manage to free themselves. [Precisely that has happened since Mr. Potter originally wrote these words back in 1988; the resulting ethnic strife underscores the Emperor's wisdom]. Here, Emperor Charles sets an example for ethnic reconciliation and unity among Eastern Europeans for the joint goal of liberation.
Fourth, he was a champion of Christian family life. The fact that as head of state of a nation at war he found time every day for Mass, family devotions, and catechism lessons gives the lie to our modern excuse of "lack of time.” The life of the family he headed stands in contrast to the spirit of a society dominated by liberal materialism and where mortal sin is a normal and socially acceptable way of life. The emphasis he placed on the Christian formation of his children and the role of the family as the school or "domestic church" in which this formation should take place makes him an example to modern families struggling against the allures of "alternative lifestyles". His deathbed prayer for the preservation of his children from mortal sin gives pause for reflection in a society where contraception, abortion, "sexual freedom" and uninhibited sodomy are considered "human rights.” We need the example of Charles' family's Christian life in an era when highly organised forces—women's liberation, the homosexualist movement, secular humanism—-are crusading to destroy the family as an institution.
Finally, the Emperor was a champion of the preborn. The thought of his laying his hand over Zita's womb to pray for their unborn daughter challenges contemporary society where the human sacrifice of abortion on the altar of liberal democracy is defended as a "right.” Further, although the first five of his eight children were born while he possessed his civil list (i.e., his salary as Emperor), the last three came into the world after he had been dethroned and left penniless. This sets an especially instructive example for the many deliberately childless modern couples who choose an affluent "lifestyle" over having a family.
In a word, the Emperor faced all the struggles we face today, at least in their germ—he could well be considered the special patron of today's Church and her layfolk. Having had and lost everything, he clung to his religion in good times and bad—and planned his actions according to the dictates of that religion. As the leaflet issued by the League of Prayer for his canonization puts it:
IN OUR DAYS
of utter materialism
of complete indifference towards
religion in the public sphere
of break-down of family life
of mass divorces
of spiritual neglect of children
of failing spirit of sacrifice
of constant threats to peace
We need a powerful intercessor, who during his life showed a wonderful example of virtues and the spirit we so much need.
That nothing could be truer than this should be obvious. So your author will share with you the prayer authorised by the League for the Emperor's canonisation:
Almighty God, Who from all eternity didst predestine Thy servant Charles to the high office of king and father of many people, grant, we beseech Thee, that he who faithfully walked the royal road of the holy cross in patient submission to Thy Will, may soon be accorded the honour of public veneration. Give us the grace that enables us by the example of his virtues to form our hearts more and more according to the Holiest Heart of Your beloved Son. This we fervently pray for through Our Lord Jesus Christ who livest and reignest with Thee in the unity of the Holy Spirit from eternity to eternity.
Pray to the good Emperor in particular for anything and everything you encounter which arises from modern problems both in the State and the Church. He will surely help—after all, he went through it himself. Even in death, his enemies (and ours) pursue him. Although the three miracles and other work in his cause are complete, further action has been halted for the time being, allegedly through the political maneuvering of the former Vatican Secretary of State, Agostino Cardinal Casroli. However that may be, let us pray for the canonization of both Charles and his august ancestress, who has been similarly treated, Isabel the Catholic, “Godmother of the Americas.”
THE PREAMBLE AND PRINCIPLES OF THE NATIONAL UNION OF JUSTICE
Establishing my principles upon this preamble, namely, that we are all creatures of a beneficient God, made to love and serve Him in this world and to enjoy him forever in the next; and that all this world’s wealth of field and forest, or mine and river has been bestowed upon us by a kind Father, therefore, I believe that wealth as we know it originates from the natural resources and from the labor which the sons of God expend upon these resources. It is all ours except for the harsh, cruel, and grasping ways of wicked men who first concentrated wealth into the hands of a few, then dominated states and finally commenced to pit state against state in the frightful catastrophes of commercial welfare.
With this as a preamble then, these following shall be the principles of social justice towards whose realization we strive.
- I believe in the right of liberty of conscience and liberty of education, not permitting the state to dictate either my worship to my God or my chosen avocation in life.
- I believe that every citizen willing to work and capable of working shall receive a just and living annual wage which will enable him to maintain and educate his family according to the standards of American decency.
- I believe in nationalization of those public necessities which by their very nature are too important to be held in control of private individuals. By these I mean banking, credit and currency, power, light, oil and natural gas and our God-given natural resources.
- I believe in the private ownership of all other property
- I believe in upholding the right to private property yet in controlling it for the public good.
- I believe in the abolition of the privately owned Federal Reserve Banking system and in the establishment of a Government owned Central Bank.
- I believe in rescuing from the hands of private owners the right to coin and regulate the value of money, which must be restored to Congress where it belongs.
- I believe that one of the chief duties of this Government owned Central Bank is to maintain the cost of living on an even keel and the repayment of dollar debts with equal value dollars.
- I believe in the cost of production plus a fair profit for the farmer.
- I believe not only in the right of the labouring man to organize in unions but also in the duty of the Government which that labouring man supports to facilitate and to protect these organizations against the vested interests of wealth and of intellect.
- I believe in the recall of all non-productive bonds and thereby in the alleviation of taxation.
- I believe in the abolition of tax exempt bonds.
- I believe in the broadening of the base of taxation founded upon the ownership of wealth and the capacity to pay.
- I believe in the simplification of government, and the further lifting of crushing taxation from the slender revenues of the labouring class.
- I believe that in the event of war for the defense of our nation and its liberties, there shall be a conscription of wealth as well as a conscription of men.
- I believe in preferring the sanctity of human rights to the sanctity of property rights. I believe that the chief concern of government shall be for the poor because, as it is witnessed, the rich have ample means of their own to care for themselves.
These are my beliefs. These are the fundamentals of the organization which I present to you under the name of the National Union For Social Justice. It is your privilege to reject or accept my beliefs; to follow or repudiate me.
Back to Charles A. Coulombe's main page